German Glass Industry Report 38 on

German Glass Industry 141 After September 1945


  Target No.
Map Ref.
Name of Target Prof. Dr. Wilhelm Eitel
Address Kaiser Wilhelm-Institut für Silikat-forschung.
Berlin - Dahlem
Date of Visit 1st October, 1945 (By J. H. W.)
Present Position Dr. Eitel had lost all his personal records and library dating from 1925. He had lost his wife in April 1945 and was left with five children. When seen he was recovering from a nervous breakdown and was beginning to starve since, being classed as a Nazi, he had difficulty in obtaining food. (See also Report XXXIX.)


Dr. Eitel has a world wide reputation as a scientific worker. He had prepared a revision of his “Physikalische Chemie der Silikate” which it is felt should be brought up to date and published in English and Russian translations. (Dr. Eitel himself speaks and reads Russian and could prepare translations ready for editing.)

It is recommended that Dr. Eitel be moved to Fladungen (L51/H71) where much of the equipment of the K.W.I, had been moved for safety and that he be adequately housed and fed whilst he carries out the above work.

Dr. Eitel reported that Dr. Dietzel, his chief assistant now at Ostheim (Mellrichstadt - L5l/H7O), had directed research on the synthesis of mica, of interest to ceramists and electrical engineers. A full report was almost ready for publication and this also should be translated into English and published.

Dr. Eitel has brought out also a new book on silicates during the war which should be translated and reproduced in English after revision (Dr. H. H. Blau of Corning Glass Works had been in touch with Dr. Eitel before the war with a view to translating some of his works.)

Dr. Eitel had as assistant a Dr. Luise Holzapfel who had worked on organic silicon compounds. It is recommended that specialists in this field interview her to assess the value of her work.

{ Eitel settled in the USA. Various titles were published in English 1949-59. b, May 6, d. 1891-July 20, 1979}

German Glass Industry 142 After September 1945


  Target No.
Map Ref.
Name of Target Dr. H. Maurach
Address Once 91 Gutleutstrasse, Frankfürt a. Maine, (now destroyed.)
Now Schöllkrippen
Date of Visit 18th August, 1945


Dr. Maurach was the Secretary of the Deutsche Glastechnische Gesellschaft, the German equivalent of the Society of Glass Technology. He was also the Director of the Wärme-Technische Beratungstelle, a body which had done work of importance in promoting fuel economy in German glass and other factories. He had consistently resisted the Nazification of his organisation and had refused to take office as head of the “Wirtschaftsgruppe” in Berlin dealing with glass, thereby displeasing Dr. Seeling, his chief.

During the bombing in 1942 the office papers were removed to Schöllkrippen a little village some 30-40 miles E.N.E. of Frankfürt and after the destruction of the Frankfürt office in the l943 raids he himself moved out to the same place. When the U.S. forces took over the administration Dr. Maurach managed to get the records put under U.S. protection. He has recently opened a small office in Frankfurt at Unter Meinquai 12. His previous staff had included several Nazis and he would have nothing to do with these.

Dr. Maurach put his knowledge of the industry at the disposal of the team and was most helpful in advising them of the works most likely to repay a visit from the building angle. He was most anxious to put his services at the disposal of the Allied Administration, but felt that the approach should be from their side. It should be stated that there is no doubt whatever in the minds of his American and British co-workers in glass that Dr. Maurach is a very fine type who should be capable of giving great assistance, in an advisory capacity at any rate (he is not young having started his glass career in 1907 at the Stolberg factory of the St. Gobain concern,) to those in charge of the rehabilitation of the German glass industry. The Officers of the Society of Glass Technology (Secretary, Prof. W. E. S. Turner, The Department of Glass Technology, The University, Elmfield, Northumberland Road, Sheffield, 10) and of the Glass Division of the American Ceramic Society (Secretary - Ross C. Purdy, Columbus) or Dr. Hostetter (Mississippi Glass Co., St. Louis 7, Mo., U.S.A.) could be consulted to confirm this view.

German Glass Industry 143 After September 1945

It was stated by Dr. Maurach that:

(1) L. von Reis of the Vereinigte Glaswerke organisation was in Plauen, Saxony (M51/K12)

(2) The Flat Glass Association including Dr. O. Seeling and Herr Wentzel had moved their office into Czechoslovakia when the bombing raids started.

(3) Dr. Erich Schott at the head of the Wirtschaftsgruppe was a Nazi as was Dr. Berger and (under pressure) Dr. Eitel of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut at Charlottenburg.

German Glass Industry 144 After September 1945


  Target No.
Map Ref.
Name of Target Prof. Dr. Gustav Keppeler
Address Cullenstrasse 26, Hannover
Date of Visit 28th September, 1945


Prof. Keppeler was head of the department of the Technische Hochschule, Hannover, now destroyed. The visit was taken up in obtaining the Professor’s views to check statements previously obtained from other technologists. He said that (1) no new glasses had to his knowledge been developed during the war, (2) the attempts to develop plastics to provide optical components of high quality was a failure.

German Glass Industry 145 After September 1945


  Target No.
Map Ref.
Name of Target Dr. H. H. Franck
Address Technische Hochschule, Berlin-Charlottenburg.
Date of Visit 1st October, 1945


Dr. Franck was the head of the glass and acid section of the institution. Although partly of Jewish blood and therefore debarred from receiving recognition, he had gained a following amongst glass manufacturers and had built up a co-operative system between his laboratory and the glass industry which was said to be noteworthy.

No actual contact was made with Dr. Franck, the above information being obtained from Frau Franck at his home (Wurttemburg Allee 26 - 27, Berlin - Charlottenburg.)

German Glass Industry 146 After September 1945


  Target No.
Map Ref.
Name of Target Dr. Erich Schott
Address 18 Julius Schrechtstrasse, Munich
(renamed - Rudolph Hurschstrasse.)
Date of Visit 13th September, 1945
Present Position Dr. Schott (of Schott and Genossen, Jena.) was recently released from an Allied detention camp at Heidenheim (L49/S71)

The Jena Research Work

Dr. Schott said one of the most important pieces of work carried out during the war was on the production of non-reflecting films upon glass surfaces. This was in charge of Dr. Geffken now at Heidenheim. The coating was of titanium and silicon dioxides. Much research before and during the war had failed to reveal real substitutes for boric oxide in glass. Some of the low alkali content glasses of the type used for “top of stove” ware had been used with some success. The Jena Works had made electrical condensers enclosed in glass, but according to Dr. Schott, mica insulated condensers were still the best. Dr. Schott regarded plastic optics as a failure, although his firm co-operated with Zeiss in experimental work.

No glasses for infra-red communication were made at Jena.

Dr. E. Berger (Dr. Schott’s chief assistant at Jena, released about the same time) has since been killed in a motoring accident. Dr. Rehm, assistant to Dr. Berger, was believed to be capable of giving information on glass compositions. Arrangements were made by J. H. W. that Drs. Geffken and Rehm should prepare reports on their respective departments to be forwarded to him in London. (No such report has as yet been received by the rest of the glass team.)

See also Report XXXIX.
German Glass Industry 147 After September 1945


  Target No.
Map Ref.
(Not yet allocated)
Name of Target Collecting Centre for Scientists
Address Heidenheim.
Date of Visit 30th August, 1945
Summary Some 500 men and 50 women, together with their families were distributed in the 33 villages in the Heidenheim neighbourhood. These included a number of Jena technicians and scientific workers from Jena University. The camp is run by Dr. Werner Kliefoth.

Jenaer Glaswerke Personnel

Department of Engineering Wolfram Spehr - Optical Glass Production.
Department of Engineering Hermann Schübel - Precision Calibration of Tubes etc.

Dr. Phil. nat. (Chemist) Karl Rehm - Special optical glass - Research and process Engineering.

Dr. Paul Prausnitz - Porous glass filters - Laboratory glassware.

Ing. Otto Netter - Electrical glass. Glass-porcelain seals.

Herr George Kutke - Glass machinery.

Dr. Dag. Otto Bartsch - Pots for Optical glass melting at 2,000°C.

Walter Pierstorff - Sales and Commercial manager.

Dr. Phil. Franz Riedinger - Head of Patent Departments of both Jenaer Glaswerke and Carl Zeiss.

Dr. Edwin Berger (Deceased 5th September, 1945) Physical and Chemical glass.

Richard Hirsch - Technical Director (Discharged from camp.)

Dr. Erich Schott - Director Jenaer glass works and five other Companies. (Discharged from camp. See Report XLII.)

University of Jena Personnel

Ceramic Institut of Hermsdorf - Schonburg - Isolatoren Ges:
Dr. Phil. Werner Rath - Ceramics for High Frequency and mechanical high temperature resistance.

Theoretical Physical Institute;
Dr. Gerhard Eichorn - Long wave infra-red and electric wave expert, Atomic Physics, Quick indicating infra-red receivers.
Dr. Direktor Gerhard Hettner - Long wave infra-red expert.

Chemical Technical Institute:
Dr. Chem. Ernest Schneider - Electro Chemical reduction of organic matter.

German Glass Industry 148 After September 1945

Institut for Anorganische Chemie:
Dr. Ing. Emil Henser - Organo-metallic carbonyls of Pb, Fe, Hg, Rh, Mn and Cr.
Dr. H. R. H. Schäfer - Iron chloride at 0° - 1,000°C. Silicate chemistry, Chlorination.

Institute for Organic Chemistry:
Dr. Libl. S. K. Mitzsche - Silicon organic compounds. Resin-free plastics from sawdust.

Institute of Applied Optics:
Dr. Gerhard Frey - Optical properties of glass under stress. Physiological optics. Development of infra-red transparent glass.

University of Breslau:
Dr. Werner Kliefoth - Director and Professor - Infra-red expert.
(This man is the one who really runs this camp at Heidenheim. Is very agreeable.)
Dr. Rinehold Jensch - Infra-red transparent glass development.

Technische Hochschule Breslau
(Keramische Institute.)

Dr. Max. Schiedeck - Mechanical and heat resisting ceramics.

Carl Zeiss, Jena

Dr. rer.nat Rudolph Koops - Synthesis of new crystalline optical media. Reduction of surface reflection of glass
Mech. Eng. Bruno Miller - Design of infra-red direction finders and astronomical equipment.


Of the above (1) Dr. Otto Bartsch was in charge of the pot casting at the Jena glassworks. He also supervised all furnace construction. His work had included the melting of high silica, content glasses at high temperatures (80 - 95% SiO2 with B2O3 and/or BaO) and development work on zircon dioxide and silicate refractories containing up to 4% vanadium oxide. He claimed that pots could be made in which to melt silica.

(2) Dr. Karl Rehm was assistant to Dr. E. Berger and had been concerned with glass compositions and glass melting research, working extensively on rare earth oxide containing glasses. He stated that no large scale production was ever undertaken owing to lack of raw materials. He had found that lanthanum oxide with barium oxide made good high refractive index glass. Lanthanium oxide with boric oxide was another good combination. Tungsten glasses and glasses containing up to 15% titanium oxide had also been made. The following data relate to glasses produced successfully.

German Glass Industry 149 After September 1945
    No. SSK-1
No. SK-16  
SiO2   15.0   30.0  
B2O3   15.0   17.0  
LaO   20.0    
BaO   45.0   48.0  
AS2O3   1.0   1.0  
TiO2   4.0    
    100.0   96.0  
Ref. index   1.7    
Dispersion   54 - 55    

(3) Dr. S. K. Mitzsche had worked on organic silicates and silicones. He stated positively that silicones had not been made commercially as yet in Europe, their production being too difficult to be considered. Although very interested in the above he had latterly been compelled by the German government to work on laminated glass problems.

(4) Walther Pierstorff, sales manager, stated that the production and use of glass piping was very considerable, there being a large demand owing to lack of metals.

(5) A further inmate was Josef Friedrichs, managing director of Glaswerke Greiner und Friedrichs of Stützenbach who quoted the compositions below for chemical laboratory ware:

    Resistant Glass   Apparatus Glass
      %       %  
SiO2     75       71  
B2O3     10        
R2O3     5       4  
BaO     5        
CaO           8  
Na2O     5       8  
K2O           8  
      100       99.0  
German Glass Industry 150-155 After September 1945

{ Index - not reproduced}

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German Glass Industry Drawing 1 After September 1945

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Drawing 1
Werk Grünenplan
Gas Cleaning Plant


German Glass Industry Drawing 2 After September 1945

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Drawing 2
Deutsche Spiegelglas A.G.
Werk Grünenplan.
Gas Ports



German Glass Industry Drawing 3 After September 1945

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Drawing 3
A.G. der Gerresheimer Glashüttenwerke vorm. Ferd. Heye
Fibre Tank Forehearth Assembly

2 Bushing Forehearth
Owens-Illinois Glass Company
Industrial Materials Division, Newark, Ohio
Date 12-20-36, Scale 3"= 1'-0"
Dran by Hajda
Drawing number J6-D07

Left side


Right Side


German Glass Industry Drawing 4 After September 1945

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Drawing 4
Oscar Gossler Glasgespinnst Fabric G.m.b.H.
Rotating Disc

Gezeichn. 12.2.1941
Hager & Weidmann A.-G. Bergisch Gladbach


German Glass Industry Drawing 5 After September 1945

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Drawing 5
Osdar Gossler Glasgespinnst Fabric G.m.b.H
Spinning Furnace

Gezeichnet 24.7.36 Name: Hoe
Oscar Gossler, Hamburg 11

Left Side (Draufsicht & Ansicht)


Right Side (Ölbrenner, Anordnunf der Düsen, Spinn-Schale)


German Glass Industry Drawing 6 After September 1945

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Drawing 6
Glaswerke Ruhr A.G.
Tubing Tank

1.u.2. Wannenreise

Wanne D

Traced 15.11.45

E-Karnap, den 10.8.34


German Glass Industry Drawing 7 After September 1945

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Schnitt a-b

Drawing 7

Glaswerke Ruhe 21.6

Wanne IV Nr. 2516

M. 1:50 von 14.6.39