Glass Patents UK class 56 - 1855


CLASS 56, GLASS. — From Bound volume 1855-1900, printed 1905

Patents have been granted in all cases, unless otherwise stated. Drawings accompany the Specification where the abridgment is illustrated and also where the words Drawings to Specification follow the date.

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A.D. 1855.

Patent Abridgment 1855 22  

22. Venables, J., and Mann, A. Jan. 3.

Ornamenting. — Figures, ornaments, or designs in relief are produce on glass by applying plastic transfers to the surfaces, washing off, burning, or otherwise removing the paper, cloth, or like backing-material, and fixing the ornamentations by fire, heat, &c. The transfer is produced by filling in grooves in a deeply-engraved plate with a plastic composition consisting of linseed or other vegetable oil, sulphur, red lead, and resin, boiled into a glutinous state and mixed with earthy and colouring materials. A layer or backing of paper, cloth, &c. is pressed against the plate, and adheres to the plastic composition which is removed with the backing.

Patent Abridgment 1855 255  

255. Chance, J. T. Feb. 3.

Moulding; cutting off excess of metal. — Relates to apparatus for moulding glass and other vitreous tubes. The mould is made in three longitudinal sections a, a1, a2, the central section, which is fixed to a stand b, having the others hinged to it. A strip of semi-molten glass &c. is placed on the open mould mandrel m is placed upon it, and the mould is closed by the handles c so as to cause the glass to encircle the mandrel and its edges to weld together. The mandrel can be turned in the glass tube by means of its handle m1, and the glass can be held against the mandrel by a lever m2 so that it can be rotated by the mandrel in the mould. The mould is formed with flanges a4 at one end, which serve to cut off surplus glass.


Patent Abridgment 1855 582  

582. Bach, H. March 15.

Moulding; shaping. — Hollow glass pillars or facings for covering the bars of sash frames, are cast in moulds of a semicircular section, or formed by bending plateglass over suitable cores. The faces are then polished, and the inner side of each pillar gilded or coloured.

Patent Abridgment 1855 1031  

1031. Bowron, J. May 8.

Moulding. — Glass tiles, instead of being cut from sheets of glass and bent to form, are moulded under pressure in suitable moulds of the required form, and subsequently annealed.

Patent Abridgment 1855 1339  

1339. Coulson, S. June 12.

[Letters Patent void for want of Final Specification.]

Materials. — Consists in the application of finely powdered barium sulphate to the manufacture of glass. The sulphate is reduced to powder by heat, and, if desired, may be ground afterwards.

Patent Abridgment 1855 1445  

1445. Silbermann, I. J. June 23.

Ornamenting; moulding. — Relates to a method of combining printing with moulding, applicable to articles with plane or curved surfaces, such as globes &c. A design is etched, engraved, or embossed on the interior of the mould. The design is inked, and the mould is then filled with glass.

Patent Abridgment 1855 1456  

1456. Leiss, F., June 26. and Schneider, C.

Transparencies. — Consists in the use of mica pro­vided with drawings, pictures, devices, colouring &c. for numerals, name plates, and for ornamenting various articles, such as lamp reflectors, screens, windows, doors, &c., for magic-lantern slides, arms, devices, emblems, and for labels on bottles and other curved and flat surfaces. The raw material is cleaned and then slit into tablets, sheets, &c of any desired shape, sometimes being coloured and hardened in its raw state. Drawings are put on the mica by hand and any of the usual printing processes, as well as by electrical and chemical means, and painted in any transparent or opaque colour. The mica may also be backed with metal foils, and gold and silver paper, as well as with paper printed with drawings &c. in transparent colours, rendered so by a clearing liquid or by gelatine fixed underneath, frostings, quicksilver, &c., all of which may be protected by a varnish, glass, or wood backing. When affixed to glass and other surfaces, cements such as white varnish, gum opal, marine glue, gutta-percha solution, &c, which are transparent, water and fire proof, are employed, and an edging of metal, cement, or gutta-percha added to protect the mica. After the colouring process, the device produced may be burnt into the mica to ensure durability.

Patent Abridgment 1855 1470  

1470. Margrueritte, L. J. F. June 27.

Materials. — Relates to the production of metallic silicates for the manufacture of glass and crystal. Silicate of lead, zinc, &c. — pre­pared by heating the corresponding oxide with silica — is calcined with chloride of potas­sium, sodium, barium or calcium. A volatile metallic chloride is formed and may be condensed and then boiled with carbonate of lime, so as to form a metallic carbonate from which the silicate may be again prepared. A frit or residue is left after the expulsion of the volatile chlorides, and may be used for making glass. Glass and crystal may also be prepared by calcining suitable pro­portions of salt, silica, and lime with kaolin or other clay. The hydrochloric acid evolved during the reaction may be collected and utilized.

Patent Abridgment 1855 1523  

1523. Gedge, J., [Samson, L.]. July 7.

[Provisional protection only.]

Transparencies; stained glass. — Photographic glass transparencies are formed either by burning the silver into the glass or by retaining the photo­graph and using a cover glass. The types (negatives ?) are arranged in a frame which is placed behind a second frame furnished with drawings or designs for combining with the types. The types (negatives) are copied on to a positive plate by means of a large lens. The proof (trans­parency) is formed on a sensitized plate coated with albumen and collodion. The colour of the burnt - in transparency may be changed to “bistre” by the action of oxide of iron. The oxide of iron may be combined with the silver by using protosulphate of iron as the developer.

Patent Abridgment 1855 1535  

1535. Newton, A. V., [a communication]. July 9.

Drawings to Specification.

Forming articles with wire skeletons. — Relates to the manufacture of fire and burglar proof glass for windows &c., with a skeleton of wire netting. A layer of glass is poured into the mould, and on this the wire netting is placed; another layer of molten glass is then poured on the top, and the whole mass subjected to pressure while in a highly heated state.

Patent Abridgment 1855 1715  

1715. Paris, C. E. July 28.

Obtaining metal. — Sulphate of lead is employed as a substitute, in whole or in part, for minium (red lead), in the manufacture of crystal, glass, enamel, or other vitreous products, the sulphate being converted to the oxide by charcoal or other reducing agent, during the manufacture of the frit &c.

Patent Abridgment 1855 1986  

1986. Jones, E. G. Sept. 3.

Flattening; plant, general arrangement of. — Cylinders of sheet glass are flattened in an upright position, instead of on a horizontal bed or stone, The cylinder, suitably cut or divided, is placed in the kiln B, where under gradual heating it partially developes. It is next lifted by means of the pincers shown in Fig. 4, and placed on a carriage on the rails D, along which it is pushed in front of the “flashing” furnace E, where, by the heat of the furnace, the flattening is completed. It is then disengaged from the instrument which holds it, and piled in a fixed kiln or movable box F, to be annealed in the usual way.

Patent Abridgment 1855 2016  

2016. Schwartz, T. Sept. 6.

Drawings to Specification.

Forming ribbed articles. — Parts of apparatus for heating or cooling gases or liquids are made of glass, and are provided with ridges formed by blowing or by attaching separate pieces. The invention is also applicable to surfaces for drying and rarefying steam and gases, coolers, condensers, refrigerators, stills, heating-pans, and boilers.

Patent Abridgment 1855 2112  

2112. Cornides, L. Sept. 19.

Transparencies. — Relates to the production and colouring of designs on glass or other surfaces coated with gelatine or glue as described in Specification No. 2066, A.D. 1854. A print is made on transfer paper, and while the ink is wet it may he dusted with metallic powder or powdered coloured glass. This is transferred to the coated glass by first saturating it by placing it face up­wards on water, and then placing it face down­wards in a bath of water in which the coated glass is immersed. The glass is then lifted out with the print upon it. The surface may then be coloured as described in the Specification referred to above, and before colouring may be re-coated with gelatine or glue. The plate may then be steeped in a fixing-bath, consisting of a solution of any known salt of alumina. The coated surface may be coloured by applying boiled linseed oil, or other substance which will resist the dyes or colours, to the parts that are not to be coloured. This resist may be applied by printing in transfer ink &c. on transfer paper, and transferring the design to the surface, and, after colouring, washing off the transfer ink with turpentine &c. Or, according to the Provisional Specification, the resist design in linseed oil &c. may be applied by the aid of stencils. The surface may be coloured by applying powdered coloured glass to the moistened gelatine. Plates of glass, coated with gelatine or glue as described, may have the de­signs produced thereon by known photographic means to produce positive prints thereon. These may be coloured if desired. The surface may be protected by coating with a solution of guncotton in pyroxilic spirit, as described in Specification No. 745, A.D. 1855, [Abridgment Class Water­proof &c. fabrics]. The Provisional Specifica­tion states also, (1) that the back of the glass may be silvered, and “tinsel paper,” “tinsel” or “foil” may be applied; and (2) that a me­tallized flexible medium, such as metallized paper, may be applied to the gelatine surface, and the medium and gelatine then removed from the glass or other surface.

Patent Abridgment 1855 2371  

2371. Richardson, T. Oct. 23.

Materials. — Relates to the use of purified native borate of lime, either alone or fritted with soda inthe form of carbonate, as a substitute for borax in the manufacture of glass. The native mineral is levigated and a jet of steam is admitted into the dolly tub to promote the purification. Sand and other coarse impurities are separated in the dolly, and the finely divided borate flows on through spouts into settling tanks. The soluble impurities may be siphoned off. The purified borate may be dried at a gentle heat, being occasionally agitated by the workman. For common glass, it is sufficient to brush off the sand &c. from the masses of mineral, or to expose them to a current of water. For pale glass, suitable for medicine bottles &c, the crude borate may be used. A modification is described in which sulphate of soda is used instead of the carbonate.

Patent Abridgment 1855 2479  

2479. Walenn, W. H., [Walter, W. P.]. Nov. 5.

Flattening; shaping. — Sheet-glass cylinders are flattened by means of the instrument shown, which consists of two side or wing pieces b connected by links c to the central stem a, and by links d to a slide e on the stem. The pieces b are collapsed towards the stem a by moving the slide to permit their insertion into the cylinder, which is supported on the instrument while being softened in the usual flattening furnace &c. When the glass is softened, the slide e is moved to expand the pieces b into the position shown, thus flattening the cylinder into the form shown in Fig. 4, the instrument being turned as may be necessary during the operation to insure an even heating. By employing three equidistant pieces b, the cylinder may be flattened to a form triangular in cross-section. The slide e is preferably formed with collars f, g, so that it can be engaged with a bar of the furnace &c, the stem a being pushed or pulled by hand; or the collars may be formed on the stem, and the slide operated by hand.

Patent Abridgment 1855 2481  

2481. Burridge, G. Nov. 5.

Drawings to Specification.

Stained glass. — Coloured glass for ornamental purposes is coloured on both sides, the two sides being of different colours; or, two sheets of different colours may be rolled, pressed, or other­wise united together to form one sheet. Designs are produced on the glass by removing parts of the colour stain or flash from one or both sides, according to the required design, by means of “fluoric acid,” or by grinding, cutting, engraving, &c. Where one colour only is removed, the glass will show the colour on the opposite side, while parts from which both colours have been removed will be transparent. Where neither colour is removed, a combination tint or opaque effect will be produced. For more elaborate designs, further combination colours and graduated tints may be produced by having two or more layers or strata of different colours, and etching with acid to different depths. Opaque coats of enamel may also be applied to increase the combination effects.

Patent Abridgment 1855 2537  

2537. Margueritte, L. J. F. Nov. 12.

Materials. — Relates to the manufacture of glass, crystal, enamels, glazings, and like vitreous com­positions. Suitable proportions of the materials employed are given in the Specification. A transparent glass, free from potash and soda, is obtained by calcining a mixture of silica, lime, and alumina. Instead of employing pure materials, a clay may be used, to which pure materials may be added, as required, to obtain the desired relative proportions. It is stated that, by this method, with a clay of specified composition, a green-tinted glass is obtained, which might be used for making bottles, and that kaolin might be used for window glass, looking glass, &c. For making crystal, without potash, a mixture of silica, oxide of lead, lime and alumina is employed, the lime being substituted for the potash ordi­narily used. Oxides of lead or zinc, &c. may also be added to this mixture. Felspar, which con­tains potash or soda, or both these alkalies, is also employed for the manufacture of glass, the proportion of alumina being reduced, if necessary, by the addition of silica and lime. The proportion of alkali may be increased, if desired. To produce a vitreous product which may be used for manufacturing crystal, the felspar may be calcined with metallic oxides, such as oxide of lead, the proportion of silica being increased by the addition of sand &c. The addition of other oxides, such as oxide of zinc or bismuth, produces a vitreous, fusible, translucent material. Other oxides may be added to tint the resulting product. Vitreous compounds are also obtained from phos­phates, chiefly biphosphate of lime, although biphosphates of potash, soda, baryta, strontia, magnesia, alumina, lead, zinc, cobalt, &c. may be used. The biphosphates may be vitrefied alone, or in combination with alumina, silica, kaolin, clays, felspar, &c. The bisphosphate of lime in such combinations is stated to decompose salts, and acid or other elements which can be volatilized, while it also serves as a decolorizing agent for contained iron. By employing biphos­phate of lime, cheap substitutes for minium may be used, e.g. sulphide or sulphate of lead or zinc, and the arsenio-sulphides of cobalt and nickel, and other natural minerals may be substituted forartificial oxides. Tinted products, suitable for coating colourless crystals, or as enamels, are obtained by the addition of the oxides of cobalt, chromium, copper, uranium, &c.

Patent Abridgment 1855 2680  

2680. Warren, T. Nov. 27.

Delivering mol­ten metal; mould­ing. — The metal is discharged from a glass-furnace crucible through a pipe entering the bot­tom or side, so that the glass can be run directly on to a table for rolling plate glass, or into a mould when cast­ing glass cylin­ders or pipes &c. The cores of the moulds are of metal, and are collapsable to facilitate removal, and may be similar to those described in the Specifications of Law and Inglis (No. 2058, A.D. 1853), and of Page (No. 1450, A.D. 1855), [Abridgment Class Metals, Cutting &c.]. A pipe C, Fig. 1, leads from the side or bottom of the crucible A, and through an orifice in the wall D of the furnace to a spout B, from which the metal is discharged into the mould F. The opening, when not in use, is closed by a lump of clay or otherwise. A short spout may be used, when the apparatus is intended for the manu­facture of plate glass. The outer part of the mould consists of hinged segments F provided with handles H. The collapsable core stands inside a raised rim K, Figs. 3 and 4, on a plate J, and consists of segments connected by hinges L. One segment M is smaller than the others, and has a bevelled edge fitting against the bevelled edge of the adjacent segment. The segment M is connected by a link N to one arm O of a bell-crank lever O, P, both arms of which are forked at their inner ends to embrace a vertical rod Q to which the lever is pivoted. The rod Q rests in a recess in the plate J, and by forcing thelever arm P towards the bar Q, the core is ex­panded, and the molten glass is then poured into the space between the mould and core. The exterior of the core may be covered with loam.

Patent Abridgment 1855 2832  

2832. Warren, T. Dec. 15.

Moulding. — Relates to moulds for forming pipes and other articles. Reference is made to a prior Specification dated 27th Nov. 1855 (No. 2680). The outer part of the mould is formed in three segmental sections L hinged together at M and provided with handles N, as shown in Fig. 2. When closed, the mould abuts against a flange J formed on a base-plate B. The core consists of similar segmental sections E, D, F, G, Figs. 5 and 6. The section G is narrower than the others, and is connected by a link H to a lever I, K pivoted on a central bar A adapted to fit in a hole in the base plate B and secured to the section D by bars C. The core can be expanded against the flange J by moving the part I of the lever I, K inwards, the bevelled edges of the sections E, G then forming a tight joint. Molten glass is poured into the space between the mould L and the core. The core is then folded inwards to allow its removal, and the mould L is opened. In a modification, the arrangement of the lever I, K and the link H is slightly varied.