Glass Patents UK class 56 - 1857


CLASS 56, GLASS. — From Bound volume 1855-1900, printed 1905

Patents have been granted in all cases, unless otherwise stated. Drawings accompany the Specification where the abridgment is illustrated and also where the words Drawings to Specification follow the date.

{Glass-Study: Redrawn images are ©2008 F. E. Andrews. Layout ©2008 (F Andrews). All text is in the public domain. Pagination is ignored as only reference needed for citation is year and Patent Number.}

A.D. 1857.

Patent Abridgment 1857 182  

182. Neville, S. Jan. 21. Disclaimer.

Annealing. — Fig. 1 shows a vertical section, and Fig. 2 a horizontal section, through a furnace F. The invention relates to apparatus employed in annealing glass, and consists in arranging a number of lear pans E, or plates or vessels for holding the articles to be treated, in the form of an endless or continuous table, which is made to travel slowly, so that the articles introduced at one end are removed at the other, or are brought back to the place from which they started,

Patent Abridgment 1857 489  

489. Clark, W., [a communication]. Feb. 19.


Delivering molten metal; drawing; obtaining metal; pressing; rolling; shaping; cutting glass. — Relates to the manufacture of window glass in continuous sheets. The metal is melted in platinum or clay crucibles b, c, d, b1, c1, d1, Fig. 1, arranged in steps one above the other. The crucibles are of the form shown in section in Fig. 7, and are filled with raw materials, and recharged as fusion continues, so that all are full after complete fusion. New matter is then introduced into the upper crucibles b, c, b1, c1, and as fusion continues the molten metal overflows to the lower crucibles d, d1, through the channels G and a, and finally through gutters e, e1, into a receiving trough H, Figs. l and 4. The glass is purer through, being drawn off from below the surface. The glass then passes through openings in the lower part of the trough H into a platinum &c. cell o, which forms a bottomless case within the trough H. The cell o may be furnished with a bottom having a single opening, if desired, so that the two lots of glass supplied from the two sets of crucibles may meet at the opening and so be thoroughly mixed. The trough H is situated in a narrow gallery or furnace L, which is heated from the melting furnace. When the trough H and cell o are quite full, the formation of the sheet of glass S is commenced. Two iron hooks l, Fig. 4, are lowered into the molten glass, so that they become red hot and adhere to the glass. These hooks can be adjusted laterally and vertically by screws p and q, Fig.1. They prevent lateral contraction of the sheet of glass during its formation. A bar of iron C, Fig. 4, is made red hot at its lower edge, and lowered into the cell o, and is then gently removed with the glass adhering to it, the hooks l being raised with it by means of the vertical screws for about an inch and a half as the glass is drawn up. The hooks then stop, and the bar C is carried upwards. Instead of using the hooks described, the glass may be prevented from shrinking by means of two tubes r, Fig. 8, through which water is caused to circulate. The tubes are arranged by means of balance weights u to lightly touch the edges of the sheet, which are thereby cooled and enabled to retain their proper form. The glass is next drawn up through a series of wood or india-rubber rollers z, Fig. 4, mounted on shafts x, x1, and driven by bevel gearing from a belt-pulley. These rollers are adapted to open to allow the passage of the bar C, and may be fixed in any position on the shafts by means of clutches X. They are caused to exert a pressure on the glass by means of weights Y, Fig. 6. When all the rollers have come into operation, the bar C is removed from the glass by means of a cutting diamond, and the glass is carried upwards by the rollers alone to a cutting frame, Fig. 9, which may be moved out of the way by a lever so as to allow the bar C to pass. When the glass has reached the required height, the clamping screws g of the cutting frame are tightened by means of a crank i so as to grip the sheet, which is cut off by running a diamond point along the straight edge j. The frame is hinged at f, and may be lowered into a horizontal position during the removal of the sheet of glass. The thickness of the glass depends upon the rate at which it is withdrawn from the cell o.

Patent Abridgment 1857 553  

553. Degrand, L. E. O. Feb. 25. Drawings to Specification.

Moulding. — Relates to the production of lenticular glasses with waved, striated, or corrugated surfaces, applicable for use in street lamps, railway lamps, carriage lamps, hand lamps, shades, and lanterns and other apparatus for lighthouses. The glasses may be cast or stamped in heated moulds, and afterwards annealed. The stamping process is carried out inside the furnace. The surfaces of the mould may be electrically coated with a thin film of silver, gold, or platinum. The glasses may be cast in one piece or in parts. They may be polished by exposing them to an active fire and so melting their surfaces; or they may be polished in a lathe.
Patent Abridgment 1857 595  

595. Brooman, R. A., [Mesdach, L.]. Feb. 28.

Obtaining metal. — Consists in making sodium sulphate for use in the manufacture of glass by treating sodium chloride, either in solution or placed in the flues of a furnace, with sulphurous acid; or, the sulphurous acid may be passed into a solution of sea salt. Sodium sulphites and hyposulphites are formed at the same time.

Patent Abridgment 1857 615  

615. Anderson, J. March 2. [Provisional protection only.]

Gathering metal. — Relates to the provision of a number of detachable fulcra of iron or other suitable material for the right-hand side of the working hole of a glass furnace, against which the workman who gathers the glass may rest his rod or tube.
Patent Abridgment 1857 684  

684. Simpson, F.
March 9.

Shaping. — Relates to a method of forming a screw in a neck of a bottle of the type described in Specification No. 1722, A.D. 1856, [Abridgment Class Stoppering &c.]. The Figure shows the tool used. To the ends of a pair of tongs, are riveted two pieces of metal, which are shaped to form the exterior of the neck. A rod passing through the centre of the tongs, has a screw thread on it and a conical end. The melted glass is placed over this rod, and the jaws of the tongs are brought together to form the exterior of the bottle, and to press the glass into the screw. When the glass is set, the screw is removed by turning the tool by means of its handle.

Patent Abridgment 1857 876  

876. Scott, J. March 30.

Bottle necks, making; moulding; shaping.— A bottle neck is moulded to the shape shown in the Figure, having a shoulder at D surmounted by a narrower portion broken off at A after moulding, the bottle being finished at one operation.


Patent Abridgment 1857 908  

908. Crossley, J. April 1. [Provisional protection only.]

Rolling. — The smoothing runner is given a lateral motion from end to end of the table and back again, by means of screw or other suitable gearing, and is also given a motion of rotation on its axis, first in one direction and then in the other, by means of a toothed wheel mounted on the axis, and adapted to gear alternately with a succession of racks placed on opposite sides of the frame.
Patent Abridgment 1857 1239  

1239. Châtel, C. May 2. [Provisional protection only.]

Transparent and translucent materials. — Consists in making blinds, reflectors &c. from transparent fabric which is ornamented by cutting out designs from it by hand or machinery, and glueing or sewing into the cut out forms differently coloured stuffs. Designs are printed on the joints with a mordant, on which is sprinkled powdered wool, or the like, or velvet powder or shearings.
Patent Abridgment 1857 1513  

1513. Hart, T. May 27. Drawings to Specification.

Ornamenting. — Globes or bowls for railway-carriage roof and like lamps are formed with lenticular portions on their inner surfaces, and have their upper parts ornamented with cut, pressed, or coloured designs.
Patent Abridgment 1857 1599  

1599. Dopter, A. J. V. June 6.

Ornamenting. — Glass is ornamented by printing on or transferring to it a design in some adhesive coating. The body is placed over a plate having a similar pattern hollowed out in it, which is filled with the powdered fusible colour. The whole is reversed and the pattern covered with the powder. The same end may be attained by placing a perforated pattern over the surface, and sprinkling it with the desired colours; or the colours may be transferred to the article by means of a stretched cloth or skin, which is placed over the plate containing the colours.
Patent Abridgment 1857 1605  

1605. Wright, W. June 9.

Annealing. — Relates to the annealing of glass in ovens. Fig. 1 shows a longitudinal section of a "lear" or oven, Fig. 2 a transverse vertical section, and Fig. 3 a horizontal section. Means are provided for moving the annealing trays C, C1, which are preferably made of cast iron, from one end of the oven A to the other. The trays have a bearing in longitudinal grooves in side pieces B, and are arranged in two tiers, the upper one serving to contain the articles to be annealed. The movement of the trays is effected by a reciprocating rod or chain G having at its ends upright pieces Q, Q1, the pieces Q serving to move the full trays to the left hand, and the pieces Q1 to move the empty trays to the right, each movement causing first the end tray of the top layer, from which the articles have been removed, to be deposited on the balanced arms D1, the counterweight of which causes the arms to be lowered to the second tier, on to which the tray is subsequently pushed by the pieces Q1, and at the same time the tray at the other end of the second tier is pushed on to the balanced arms D, by which it is raised to the level of the top tier, where it is filled, and is pushed into place by the pieces Q.


Patent Abridgment 1857 1710  

1710. Sorel, S. T. M. June 19.

Translucent materials. — A translucent plaster composition is composed of zinc chloride, or a similar chloride, or acids, or alkaline hydrates, a tartrate, hydrochloric acid, starchy, gummy, or gelatinous material, powders, and water. Alkaline and other chlorides, borates, ammonium and aluminium salts, sulphates, acetates, oxalates, acetic acid, and oxalic acid, may also be employed. A translucent plastic composition can be made by mixing together 50 parts of a starchy substance, and 5 parts of zinc oxide, and then diluting the mixture with a solution, consisting of 50 parts of hydrated zinc chloride, one part of potassium bitartrate, and one part of hydrocloric acid.

Patent Abridgment 1857 1896  

1896. Brianchon, J. J. H. July 8.

Ornamenting; iridescent glass; stained glass. — Relates to the ornamenting of glass, porcelain, earthenware, &c. The surfaces are coated with a mixture of a flux and a colouring matter, or a mixture of colouring matters, and are then heated in a muffle or other furnace or oven. By these means, the colour of gold, mother-of-pearl, prismatic, and other colours are formed on the surfaces. The fluxes used consist of a mixture of resin or colophony &c, nitrate of bismuth, and essence of lavender. Other salts and oxides of bismuth or of lead may be used instead of the nitrate of bismuth. Various metallic salts and oxides are used with these fluxes in forming the colouring matters. Gold is used to produce the rich tints of shells, or prismatic colours. A yellow colouring matter is formed by mixing in a capsule heated on a sand-bath, resin, nitrate of uranium, and essence of lavender. An orange red colouring-matter is similarly formed from resin, nitrate of iron, and essence of lavender. A colouring matter for producing a surface like gold is formed by mixing suitably quantities of the two former colouring matters. A colouring matter which forms prismatic colours is produced by mixing ammoniuret or cyanuret of gold, and of mercury, or ioduret of gold, or gold dye, essence of turpentine, and essence of lavender. This mixture is added to a bismuth flux, applied to the surface and baked in the usual way, a coating of a solution of uranium being added to modify the tint. These preparations may be mixed together, and they can be applied by a brush one over the other. Mother-of-pearl tints are stated to be more easily formed on glass than on china, and may be obtained by mixing the flux of bismuth with flux of lead, and chloride of antimony mixed in resin may be added. Any essence which does not cause precipitation may be used instead of essence of lavender.
Patent Abridgment 1857 2008  

2008. Arnall, J. C, and Greenhow, G. July 21.

[Provisional protection only.]

Bottle &c. necks, making. — The screw thread inside the neck of a screw-stoppered glass bottle or jar, is formed during the making of the bottle. A spindle, which rotates in a socket fixed to a pair of spring arms somewhat like a pair of sugar tongs, is provided at its end with a screw thread to be placed in the neck of the bottle during its manufacture. The spring arms are fitted with two keepers, which when open prevent the spindle from rotating, but when closed permit of rotation. The lower ends of the arms carry two revolving rollers which press upon and shape the outside of the neck, and squeeze the glass into the threads of the screw spindle.
Patent Abridgment 1857 2045  

2045. Richardson, B. July 27.

Ornamenting; moulding; blowing. — Glass ornaments are formed by blowing glass into a mould constructed to produce a design on the exterior of the glass; the design may consist of air bubbles formed in the glass. The moulded article is coated by dipping it in glass of the same or different colour, or by enclosing it in a cup of glass blown to receive it, the blowing being con-tinued until the article is shaped as desired.
Patent Abridgment 1857 2288  

2288. Taylor, J. G. Sept. 1.

[Provisional protection only.]

Transparencies. — Cloth, canvas, metal, or other material applied to shutters, doors, screens, blinds, &c, is painted to give a dark ground, and illuminated by cutting out letters or other devices, which are faced with silk or other transparent substance.
Patent Abridgment 1857 2712  

2712. Jones, I. Oct. 26.

[Provisional protection only.]

Flattening. — Relates to the manufacture of sheet glass, and consists in flattening the glass vertically by gravity, instead of horizontally upon a bed. The glass is formed as usual in cylinders, which are cut longitudinally by a diamond and inserted in a flattening kiln. When sufficiently, heated, the cylinders are raised up at one edge by nippers, and allowed to fall and unroll vertically, thereby forming a flat plate or sheet. The operations are performed through a longitudinal slit made along the top of the flattening kiln or in any other desired part.
Patent Abridgment 1857 2881  

2881. Pidding, W. Nov. 17.

Stained glass, — Mosaic patterns are built up in the manner described in Specification No. 735, A.D. 1857, [Abridgment Class Weaving &c.], by arranging coloured threads longitudinally in a frame such as that shown. The pattern is painted on plates d, placed at the open ends of the frame, which is built up of bars e on the table a. The threads are arranged according to the pattern, and are secured in notches in the plates d. When the framing is full, pressure is applied by screws g, g1 and the mass consolidated. Slices are then cut from the ends of the block. Coloured threads of spun glass may be employed; or, threads, wires, or filaments of glass may be coated with
varnish &c, and powdered glass or other coloured powder may be caused to adhere to them. When wires are used, they may be coated with several layers of glass with the aid of heat. After compression of the mass, the frame, which may be of metal, fireclay, &c, is placed in a furnace, and the mass is burnt, melted, or vitrefied. After cooling and annealing, the solid mass is separated from the apparatus, which, in some cases, is destroyed. The block is then cut into slabs, or into thin veneers, preferably by a moving wire. The thin veneers may be used as mosaic glass for windows &c.


Patent Abridgment 1857 2919  

2919. Page, H. Nov. 20.

[Provisional protection only.]

Flattening; pressing. — In the manufacture of sheet and crown glass, the glass is flattened upon a perforated flat fire stone under which a vacuum is formed. The glass is produced of a uniform thickness by applying the power to spread the glass at the circumference instead of the centre, thus avoiding the. formation of a “knob or knot.”
Patent Abridgment 1857 3077  

3077. Breffit, E. Dec. 15.

Blowing and moulding bottles. — Moulds and push-ups used in the blowing of glass bottles are made of wood rendered less inflammable and more durable than usual by impregnating it with solutions of alum or other sodium-silicate.
Patent Abridgment 1857 3095  

3095. Turner, M. J., and Turner, M. W. Dec. 17.

Moulding. — Relates to the manufacture of glass pipes and tubes, gas and water mains, drainage pipes, tanks, water-closet pans, mantle-pieces, chimney flues and tops, and cornices and dressings for ceilings, pillars, and columns. Hard block glass is cast into moulds of the required size, and is lipped and grooved at the ends in the manner of a screw to form tight joints.
Patent Abridgment 1857 3164  

3164. Burleigh, B., and Danchell, F. L. Dec. 24.

Moulding. — Moulds are manufactured from carbonaceous matter, such as coke, charcoal, gas carbon, soot, lampblack and the like, either alone or rendered plastic by the admixture of moist bituminous, resinous, saccharine, glutinous or other cementing substances. The materials are compressed by a steam hammer or other percussive machine, or by hydraulic or screw pressure, and the moulds are baked in closed vessels.