Glass Patents UK class 56 - 1861


CLASS 56, GLASS. — From Bound volume 1855-1900, printed 1905

Patents have been granted in all cases, unless otherwise stated. Drawings accompany the Specification where the abridgment is illustrated and also where the words Drawings to Specification follow the date.

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A.D. 1861.

Patent Abridgment 1861 129  

129. Swinburne, R. W. Jan. 16.

Moulding; cutting off excess of metal; flattening; annealing. — In the manufacture of plate glass, large melting pots are used in the furnace, and these are arranged with movable pots between them, with their brims on the same level. Molten glass is ladled into the movable pots, which are then removed to the casting table by means of forceps a, a1, b, mounted on a wheel carriage c, d, the arms a, a1 being connected to the axle c. In use, the movable pots are removed from the furnace by the prongs b, which are locked at the required distance apart by means of a pin in a perforated plate, attached to one arm a to pass through a slot in the other arm a1. The letter f indicates a balance weight. At the casting table, one arm of the forceps is released and the forceps and pot tilted about the other arm on the axle c, for pouring. The casting table is fitted with a cutter, let into the table, to cut off the rounded or "crop" ends from the plates in connection with the roller used in forming the plates. The glass is then placed in a preparatory piling kiln, in which the plates are pressed and flattened ; they are then pushed through a hole into the piling kiln.


Patent Abridgment 1861 354  

354. Bowron, J.

Feb. 12.

Blowing and moulding bottles &c.; polishing. — A cylindrical mould d, Fig. 2, is provided with a sliding bottom i carried by a weighted lever j and the motion of which is limited by a stop. A two-part neck mould e is pivoted at f on the mould d, so that it can be opened, as shown in plan in Fig. 3, and is provided with wedge pieces to ensure a close fit and a locking-catch g. The mould d is mounted on trunnions b, so that it can be turned over. Metal is introduced preferably when the mould is inverted, the bottom i being removed and the neck mould being closed by a plate o1, Fig. 3.

When metal that is not easily chilled is employed, it is introduced at the top of the mould b, which is then reversed. The mould d is then turned into the position shown in Fig. 2, and compressed air


or other gas or vapour is blown in through a vertically adjustable nozzle n. Instead of using compressed air, materials may be introduced into the mould which, when heated by the molten metal, will give off gas or vapour so as to expand the glass into the mould. To polish the exterior of the bottles &c., they are heated after they have been removed from the mould.


Patent Abridgment 1861 554  

554. Pelitjean, T. March 5.

Flattening; shaping; moulding. — Relates to the manufacture of plane or curved sheet glass, cylinders, "oval cylinders" lenses, convex mirrors or reflectors, glassware, &c. For sheet glass, a bulb or cylinder is prepared, and in the same process or working is compressed between two oppositely rotating discs, so that, by means of the imprisoned air, the glass is flattened and two sheets are formed. The discs B, B1, Fig. 2, are carried by means of discs Q on belt-driven shafts M, M1 supported in sliding heads P, P1, which can be made to approach each other by means of a right and left handed screw T operated by bevel gearing G, H from a hand-wheel D. As the bulb or cylinder is compressed, the glass worker stops the orifice of the blow-pipe with his thumb, by means of which a high pressure can be obtained, capable of easy regulation. Circular sheets of glass are produced by compressing bulbs. To obtain "oval cylinders," the rotary discs are replaced by rectangular plates having a vertical or horizontal motion. The discs are made of metal, stone, clay, wood, or carbon; if wood is used, it is treated with a solution of organic substances, to prevent scorching and wear and tear. Metal discs are prepared by coating a plate of glass with gold, silver, or platinum, as described in Specification No, 1681, A.D. 1855, [Abridgment Class Ornamenting], and subsequently with copper by electrodeposition, the glass being afterwards removed. Preferably, however, carbon discs are used. The carbon is prepared by heating and vaporizing wood tar, and mixing the pulverized powder obtained therefrom with pulverized charcoal or gas carbon. From this mixture, the discs are obtained by packing and compressing it into circular metal boxes, which are closed by covers and then subjected to varying temperatures in an oven for two days or more. By these means, carbon in one piece without a crack is obtained. The discs B, B1 are attached to the discs Q by melted bitumen, and are fitted and levelled when in place, as shown, by means of a plate of glass, unpolished on both sides, which is reciprocated between the oppositely - rotating discs. Large lenses and convex mirrors or reflectors are obtained by replacing the plane discs by concave discs; the lenses are filled with a solution of sulphate of zinc or other solution. Cylindrical moulds for the manufacture of glass wares are formed of iron or zinc, in two parts, which are hinged together to open and close, and are provided with handles. Linings of the specially prepared carbon, formed by turning in a lathe, are then fitted to the moulds. The blocks in which the preliminary bulb is blown are made from the same carbon material, and are turned and polished.


Patent Abridgment 1861 982  

982. Clark, W., [Daniel, S.]. April 20.

Ornamenting. — Enamel colours are applied by a brush or pad, and portions are removed by a tool in an engine-turning lathe, to produce designs in imitation of marble, malachite, cornelian, &c.; the articles are then baked in a muffle furnace. Two or more coatings may be applied, ornamented, and burnt on in succession. The designs may first be engraved or turned in a lathe, and reproduced by galvanoplastic plates, or lithographic processes, and transfer papers. Fig. 1 shows a steel graver or tool, Fig. 2 a wood comb for imitating veined stones, and Fig. 5 a brush which is used for applying gum lac ground in essence of lavender, and is attached to a travelling part of the lathe. The baked ware may be burnished in a lathe by an agate burnisher, aided by the application to the article of soft soap and water.


Patent Abridgment 1861 1119  

1119. Johnson, J. May 4.

Transparencies. — Consists in transparencies, resembling stained glass, for use as advertising tablets &c. The required design is printed in colours upon paper, cotton, silk, &c, the boundary lines either being printed in very opaque colours, or else in size or other adhesive material to which bronze, or other metallic powder or leaf is applied, thus producing an imitation of the "leading" of stained glass. The surface is now rendered transparent by treatment with gum, size, varnish, isinglass, &c, and applied to a sheet of glass. When dry, the back is treated with varnish, oil, or oil of turpentine. Instead of being applied to glass, the print may be placed loosely behind glass, or stretched on a frame without glass, and in this case both sides are treated with oil of turpentine, the previous treatment with gum &c. being dispensed with. For very transparent tablets, the paper known as "French bank post," or tracing paper, is preferred.

Patent Abridgment 1861 1233  

1233. Chedgey, J. May 14.

Moulding. — Rollers for calendering and glazing fabrics, barrels, plungers, pipes, elbow pieces, &c., suitable for pumps used in pumping acids &c., are formed from glass by casting. Rollers and plungers are cast in a metal mould in which is mounted a piston, serving as a movable bottom, the piston rod acting as the core. As the molten glass is poured in, the piston is gradually depressed. The roller is afterwards cemented upon a spindle or axle, Keene's cement preferably being used, and is then trued up in a lathe by means of blunt tools and sand or emery and water. The surface of the roller is polished with Venetian red or putty powder, a segment of wood being used as the polishing tool. In order to turn and polish the interior of a pump barrel after casting, the barrel is cemented inside a metal cylinder, made in segments. This cylinder is mounted in a lathe &c., and a bar or straight-edge passing through the barrel is supplied with emery and water for grinding the interior. A felt covered roller, mounted in a lathe and supplied with Venetian red or putty powder, is used for polishing the interior of the barrel. In casting pipes and sockets, metal moulds and cores are employed, except in the case of bent pipes, when loam cores are used. Flanges are cast on the pipes, and they are coupled together by metal rings, made in segments and secured by bolts ; a rubber washer is placed between the pipe flanges. In casting elbows, the moulds are made in two parts, and necks are bolted to the ends for the purpose of supporting the metal core, which is made in two lengths.

Patent Abridgment 1861 1265  

1265. Patey, W., and Richardson, J.

May 17. [Provisional protection only.]

Moulding; blowing. — Relates to the manufacture of brushes with glass backs in which the bristles are fixed, and consists in making them in a two part mould, the upper member of which is provided with pins which form through the glass the holes for the reception of the bristles, the ends of the pins entering holes in the lower mould. A thin plate having perforations corresponding to the pins lies on the face of the upper part of the mould, and this plate is free to slide on the pins, and is held down on the lower part of the mould while the upper part is being raised, thereby preventing the glass adhering to the pins. The glass is then annealed. Coloured, opal, or other glass may be employed. In some cases, the glass may serve as a cover to place on the foundation holding the bristles, and it is then made concave in form, and with a series of channels or grooves on one side, to cover and enclose the wiring or its equivalent. The holes need only be made to extend part of the way through the glass, and, in that case, longitudinal grooves are subsequently cut on the plain surface of the glass deep enough to communicate with the holes. Shaving brushes are made in two pieces, which are blown or pressed in moulds; the piece for the reception of the bristles is made in the form of a flanged or ribbed ferrule, the bore of which is enlarged midway of its breadth, and in this enlarged cavity the bristles are fixed. The handle part is blown in the form of capsule, the open end of which is fitted and fixed in the ferrule piece.

Patent Abridgment 1861 1549  

1549. Clark, W., [Murray, T. L., and Holthausen Bros.]. June 17.

Transparencies. — Mica, in differently coloured or metallized sheets, is


employed for making designs, armorial bearings, &c., which can be applied to glass &c. for use as signs, advertisements, and pictures, and for other decorative and useful purposes. The mica is split into thin sheets and cleaned. The sheets are coloured with oil colours, spirits of wine, and oil varnish, or are metallized with gold, silver, platinum, or other metal leaf. The sheets are cut to the required shapes with a hollow punch or pattern plate, and then filled in with colours. The pieces are then affixed on a sheet of mica with white spirit varnish. Any required design is cut in the mica sheets with scissors &c. Several pieces of different colours are then superposed to form any design, the pieces increasing in size from above downwards. For example, the letter shown is formed of three differently-coloured pieces, a smaller upper one, an intermediate one, and a lower larger piece. The designs are affixed to the surface to be decorated by an adhesive material. A gutta-percha solution may be used for attaching letters, or Venice turpentine which has been boiled until it will solidify when cold. The latter is applied with a stick to the back of the letter, and the letter is afterwards pressed on to the surface by a hot iron. Letters may also be formed by punching openings in cardboard, leather, or other material. The parts which are to be colored are then lifted by means of a little brush; the back of the sheet is then colored with the color desired, after which it is varnished and superposed, as desired."

Patent Abridgment 1861 1619  

1619. Lafon, J. June 25.

Transparencies. — Relates to the production of designs, pictures, inscriptions, advertisements, &c. upon glass, porcelain and the like, for the ornamentation of plate glass for windows, shop fronts, &c., glass for framing photographs, door plates, labels, bottles, flasks, and other articles of glass or porcelain &c. The design is printed by chromolithography upon a coarse, sized, and glazed paper, which has been coated with a solution of gum arabic or other gum. The back of the design is printed first, and the colours are printed in the reverse order to the order in which they are ordinarily printed on paper. The impressions may be made in transparent media and powdered with colours, or with gold, silver &c. A final impression or ground, covering the entire design, is applied, composed of copal and white resin varnish. The printed transfer is moistened from the back, and is then applied to the glass &c. surface, pressed, the paper removed, and the design washed to remove the gum that was applied to the transfer paper. After drying, the design is coated with a varnish composed of sugar or caramel and alcohol.

Patent Abridgment 1861 1732  

1732. Cobley, T. July 8.

Materials. — Relates to the preparation of lead and barium silicofluorides, which, with the corresponding silicates, may be used either conjointly or separately, as enamels, glazes, or pigments, in the manufacture of glass. Hydrofluosilicic acid, prepared by heating a mixture of finely ground fluorspar and powdered sand, glass, flint, infusorial earth, slag or any native silicated base with sulphuric or other acid, is passed as gas into a solution of lead or barium salts containing hydrochloric, acetic or creosotic acid; or, the liquid acid is simply mixed with the metallic solution. The precipitate is either used in the state of pulp or is dried. Alternatively, the acid may saturate the oxides of lead or barium hydrate or carbonate, with or without boiling. Lead silicofluoride is also obtained by acting upon a lead silicate or a mixture of lead and slag or silica with liquid hydrofluoric acid; or, the acid gas may be passed into a condenser containing the finely powdered materials.

Patent Abridgment 1861 1772  

1772. Cobley, T. July 15.

Materials. — Consists in using lead silicate, and a combination of zinc and barium silicates, as a substitute for lead, and for other purposes in glass making. The silicates are made separately from an acetic or hydrochloric acid solution of the base, or from the metallic oxides or carbonates or the hydrated or caustic earth, by means of a solution of an alkaline silicate.

Patent Abridgment 1861 1775  

1775. Coombe, J. C., and Wright, J. July 15.

Obtaining metal. — In the manufacture of glass, calcium fluosilicate, alone or with barium fluosilicate, is used as an ingredient instead of lime, and potassium fluosilicate instead of ordinary potash.

Patent Abridgment 1861 1776  

1776. Cobley, T. July 15.

Materials. — Barium fluosilicate, prepared as described in Specification No. 1732, A.D. 1861, or by treating barium silicate with hydrofluoric acid, is used as a substitute for lead in the manufacture of glass, either alone or in combination with tin fluosilicate. Zinc fluosilicate, prepared as above or by acting with hydrofluosilicic acid on zinc oxide or a zinc salt, is similarly employed, either alone or in combination with baryta. The glass obtained in the latter case is stated to be freer from veins than usual. The Provisional Specification states that borax may be used with the fluosilicates.

Patent Abridgment 1861 1966  

1966. Webb, T. G. Aug. 7.

Finishing. — In an apparatus for facilitating the adaptation of the post or pontil to glass articles previous to finishing, the pontil is guided by grooved rollers d, Fig. 3, the articles being placed on a table e, provided with stops which, when once set, insure all the articles being placed in the proper position. Different methods of setting the stops are described. For plain articles, the plate e is set so that the end of a trial rod just enters the hole g, and the plate is clamped by the screws f, Fig. 2. One of the articles is then, by the aid of circles scribed on the plate, set concentrically with the hole, and the stops i, Fig. 2, are brought up into contact with it. In another method, one of the articles is clamped centrally on the plate l, Fig. 5, placed on the table, so that the end of the trial rod will enter the hole g in the plate l, and then the stops i are advanced into contact. Articles with feet are adjusted on the plate l, as before, but stops fixed at the proper height on the upright b are used.


Patent Abridgment 1861 2009  

2009. Jacob, J., [Kosch, F.]. Aug. 13.

Ornamenting. — A design in gold, silver, or other metal, either alone, or in combination with coloured enamels, is transferred in one operation from a paper transfer to glazed or unglazed porcelain, Venetian enamel, metal, or glass, and is fixed by firing. The transfer is obtained by one or more printing operations in a lithographic press, and is applied to the ware by resinous varnishes or solutions. Enamel flux ground with varnish may be applied by a printing-roller to a stone, transferred to paper, and the metals or powdered colours may be applied by a soft brush to the adhesive design.

Patent Abridgment 1861 2477  

2477. Husson, C. Oct. 4. Drawings to Specification.

Plate glass, means for lifting. — In lifting glass after silvering, a flat wooden rule is pressed against the narrowest edge, while wooden wedges are slid under the other edge, which is lifted by a knife or a sharp piece of iron. The plates are then removed by hand.

Patent Abridgment 1861 2521  

2521. Coathupe, H. B., and Waltham, F. H. Oct. 9.

Moulding. — Name plates, letters and the like are moulded in glass by a process described with reference to metal. Brass or iron letters are pasted on a paper surface in a flat metal box. The box is closed and metal is poured in. Plaster, paper, or other moulds are taken from type, or from surface letters attached to plates, and, from these, second moulds are taken, which are used to cast the name plates &c. A number of modifications, in which the same general principles are embodied, are described in the Specification.

Patent Abridgment 1861 2911  

2911. Gwilliam, G. Nov. 20. [Provisional protection only.]

Flattening. — The upper surface of newly cast plate glass is smoothed or flattened by rubbing it with a bar of wood or metal attached to the end of a long handle.

Patent Abridgment 1861 3141  

3141. Brooman, R. A., [Beauregard, F. A. T. de]. Dec. 13. Drawings to Specification.

Firing. — Relates to apparatus for superheating steam and gases, and for projecting them combined with air upon ignited combustible matter. The apparatus is applicable, more especially, as a substitute for the blowers of blast and other furnaces, and the application to blast furnaces is illustrated in the Specification. It is however stated that the method of superheating steam or gases may be employed in the firing of china, earthenware, and glass. After traversing a drying chamber, the steam or gases to be heated arepassed through horizontal tubes, contained in a superheating vessel, which is placed in and across a heating-furnace, and which is fitted with vertical tubes for the passage of the products of combustion from the grate of the furnace. From the superheating-vessel, the steam or gases issue into an outlet pipe, the nozzle of which enters a tube having a funnel-shaped mouth. The mixture of steam or gases and air passes through the said tube into a blast furnace or elsewhere.

Patent Abridgment 1861 3259  

3259. Austen, A. I. Dec. 30. [Provisional protection only.]

Transparent and translucent materials. — Transparency is given to the case which holds a night-light, by saturating it with a candle or night-light material of a higher melting point than the fatty material of which the night-light is composed. The case may be steeped in a preparation of stearin and wax, and afterwards drained in a hot chamber and polished with a suitable pad.