Glass Patents UK class 56 - 1876


CLASS 56, GLASS. — From Bound volume 1855-1900, printed 1905

Patents have been granted in all cases, unless otherwise stated. Drawings accompany the Specification where the abridgment is illustrated and also where the words Drawings to Specification follow the date.

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A.D. 1876.

Patent Abridgment 1876 126

126. Neville, S. Jan. 12.

Moulding; pressing. — Frames or holders for cruets, liqueur, pickle, and other bottles, are made entirely of glass. Molten glass is run into the mould shown in the Figure, which is composed of as many pieces as its form may require, the top piece b forming a stamp which forces the glass into every part of the mould. The loose body a of the mould is made with projections f which form the recesses in the glass frame h, and the stamp b is provided with lugs c to prevent it from descending below a given point. The glass frame is afterwards annealed or otherwise treated.


Patent Abridgment 1876 553

553. Humy, P. R. de F. d’ Feb. 11.

Forming articles with wire skeletons; forming glass-covered wire. — The glass rods &c. used for architectural and other ornamentation as described in Specification No. 1710, A.D. 1875, [Abridgment Class Ornamenting], are protected from breakage by wires or wire gauze in the body of the glass. The gauze is placed in the moulds, and the fused glass is poured over it. Wine glasses, vases, and similar articles may be made by coiling a glass tube containing a wire, round a mandrel, the junctions being fused by means of a blowpipe. The coil may be lined and coated externally with a smooth glass cup. When sheets of glass are used, a layer of talc may be placed in the body.

Patent Abridgment 1876 715

715. Gilardi, G. Feb. 19. [Provisional protection only.]

Cutting glass. — An artificial fuel is stated to be applicable “as a substitute for the ordinary diamond for dividing or cutting glass (by the action of heat).” The composition consists of about 110 parts of charcoal or carbon obtained from vine roots, stems, or branches, 1œ parts of saltpetre, or nitre, 16 of wheatan or similar flour, and 2 of gum arabic, or other gum.

Patent Abridgment 1876 748

748. Allen, C. Feb. 23. Disclaimer.

©2008 Glass-Study.comBottle necks, making. — The neck of a bottle is formed with an internal shoulder s by the shaping-tool shown. The shaping-blocks A1, B1 are carried on spring arms A, B fixed to stationary supports E to which a cup D is attached to embrace the neck of the bottle. The arms A, B are squeezed together to introduce the blocks A1, B1 into the bottle, and the shoulder is formed by turning the tool. Old bottles can be treated by rendering the necks plastic.

Patent Abridgment 1876 955

955. Atherton, J. March 6.

©2008 Glass-Study.comAnnealing. — In annealing glass plates, the plates are first placed singly in a chamber C, Fig. 5, having a flat bed, and are allowed to cool therein to a low-red heat; they are then transferred to a chamber D in which they are piled vertically to cool down gradually. The chambers C and D are heated by furnaces E, and the chamber D may also be heated by gas admitted by apertures F. The plates are turned from a horizontal to a vertical position by means of a hinged frame H operated by curved racks M, Fig. 8, and pinions P. The frame H can also be moved laterally in the furnace by means of racks I and pinions L. The whole is mounted on a wheeled truck which can be run in and out of the kiln on rails R2.


Patent Abridgment 1876 1406

1406. Nuttall, F. D. April 1. Drawings to Specification.

Plant, general arrangement of. — For use in the manufacture of glass bottles. A tank furnace, which is divided by partitions so that two or more kinds of glass can be worked, and fitted with six or more working holes on each side, is arranged in the centre of the house, and the annealing kilns are placed at each end, about twelve feet from the ends of the furnace, to give plenty of room on each side for the workmen to range over to make up for the less angular play caused by the greater number of working holes.

Patent Abridgment 1876 1453

1453. Johnson, J. H., [Weiler, C.]. April 5.

©2008 Glass-Study.comMoulding; pressing; perforating. — Caps for spinning-machine spindles are made of glass, and the holes in their tops for the reception of the spindles are made by first boring and then grinding them to the desired taper, or they may be made during the moulding by means of a tapered rod sliding centrally in the plunger employed. In some cases, however, the hole of each cap may be in a metal thimble K, Fig. 3, secured during the moulding, a pin or plunger ensuring central position; the thimble is grooved, as shown, or made with wings d, as in Fig. 4, to ensure its retention in the cap D.

Patent Abridgment 1876 1482

1482. Richardson, J. T. H. April 7.

Shaping. — Apparatus for forming the feet of wine glasses, goblets, and other similar articles, is composed of two wood, metal, &c. boards or slabs 1, 2 hinged together at 3 and held apart by a spring 4. The board 2 is provided with a handle which is held, as shown, the front and narrower board 1 having a loop 6 engaged by the thumb for manipulating it.


Patent Abridgment 1876 1747

1747. Weyde, H. Vander. April 25. Drawings to Specification.

Polishing. — Large annular plano-convex lenses to be used in a photographic studio for concentrating the light on the sitter, are made by casting the glass in moulds, afterwards submitting the angular surface to the direct action of a furnace until the surface runs and becomes smooth and glossy. Subsequent grinding and polishing is thus dispensed with. Each annulus of which the lens is composed may be cast in segments, and joined together.

Patent Abridgment 1876 1908

1908. Abel, C. D., [La Bastie, F. B. A. R, de]. May 6.

©2008 Glass-Study.comAnnealing. — In tempering bottles or other hollow glass articles, more particularly those having necks or contracted openings communicating with the interior, by the process described in Specifications No. 2783, A.D. 1874, and No. 2157, A.D. 1875, the air is withdrawn from the interior, in order to allow the tempering liquid to enter, by placing the bottle or article in an inverted position over the short limb D, Fig. 1, of a bent tube partly immersed in the bath. The short limb is placed vertically with the upper end just above the level of the liquid, and a pocket C, forming a junction piece for the limbs B, D is provided for receiving any liquid entering the tube. The bottle or article H, attached to the “punt” F, is depressed vertically in the liquid until it rests on the short limb. The “punt” is then detached, and the bent tube is pushed down in the liquid to immerse the bottle still further and afterwards turned to let the bottle drop to the bottom of the bath. A stop G prevents the tube from being immersed too far. When the article has a wide mouth, as a tumbler or jug, the short limb D is forked as shown in Fig. 3, to give a steadier support. The escape of air may be accelerated by applying suction at the top of the limb B; or the air may be displaced by forcing liquid in by means of the apparatus shown in Fig. 4. The bent tube A is then made with an enlargement B having a valve C opening inwards, and the short limb is perforated. It is mounted on a universal joint D and communicates by a flexible tube G with an air-compressing pump H. The article having been placed upon the short limb of the tube, the pressure of air entering from the pump closes the valve C and causes the liquid from the enlargement B to pass through the perforations in the short limb and impinge against the interior of the article. In a modified arrangement the bottle is closed by a stopper before dipping, so that the outer surface only comes in contact with the liquid. In this case the bottle is forced beneath the surface by a wire-gauze frame.


Patent Abridgment 1876 1914

1914. Hodgetts, W. J. May 6.

©2008 Glass-Study.comOrnamenting. — Relates to means for ornamenting glass articles whereby an appearance similar to fine wicker or basket work is given to the surface. In forming the article, a bulb is blown in the ordinary way, and the “iron” or pipe a, Fig. 1, is fixed in a horizontal position to the head of a screw e working through nuts c2 in the framing c and rotated by a hand-wheel g. A fine thread of coloured or colourless glass is then coiled on the bulb from the end of the punty m by rotating the hand-wheel g, the coiling being preferably commenced at the end nearest the “iron.” The bulb is then re-heated and blown in ribbed moulds and afterwards shaped as a jug, vase, or other vessel or article in the ordinary way. The appearance of the finished article is shown in Fig. G. In a modification by which threads crossing each other may be coiled on the bulb, the screw has a right-handed and a left-handed thread crossing each other, and is moved longitudinally by one or other of two half-nuts which can be turned down to engage the corresponding thread. Flat sheets of glass, obtained by blowing hollow cylinders which are then divided in a line parallel with the axis and flattened out, may be ornamented in a similar manner, by first coiling the threads of coloured or colourless glass on the cylinder and then blowing in ribbed moulds.


Patent Abridgment 1876 2105

2105. Britten, B. May 18.

Obtaining metal; materials. — Glass is obtained by introducing a continuous supply of fluxing-materials upon a mass of flint stones, quartz, sandstone, or other silicious material heated in a suitable tank or vessel. The flux dissolves the surfaces of the silicious mass and the glass thus formed is run into a receptacle. The tank may have a floor sloping down to a well in which the glass collects.

Patent Abridgment 1876 2364

2364. Kirk, J. W. June 6. [Provisional protection only.]

Blowing; rolling. — In making a bottle, after the manipulation of the glass on the marver, it is blown and rolled between two pieces of wood, iron, or steel, &c, which are of such a shape as to give the required form to the bottle.

Patent Abridgment 1876 2396

2396. Webb, T. G. June 8. [Provisional protection only.]

Firing. — In order to avoid the use of instruments for holding and turning an article in the process of “melting” or “glazing,” and at the same time to keep the article in its proper form, it is surrounded by a mould at the parts which are not to be acted upon and the whole is placed in a furnace. The mould is made of sufficient thick­ness or is otherwise made to prevent it from getting so hot as to stick to the glass. Instead of using a furnace, the parts to be treated may be heated by a blowpipe.

Patent Abridgment 1876 2401

2401. Webb, T. W. June 9.

Blowing; ornamenting .— Vases and other glass articles are blown with their external surfaces ornamented with designs of various forms and colours by applying to the balls of glass from which the articles are blown suitable pieces of glass in a semi-fluid state.

Patent Abridgment 1876 2413

2413. Müller, A. J. M. de. June 10. [Provisional protection only.]

Annealing; toughening. — In toughening or tempering glass bottles and like vessels they are dipped neck downward in a bath of glycerine, and in order to facilitate the escape of the air in the bottle a bent tube is placed in the bath with one end in a position to enter the bottle and the other open to the atmosphere or connected to an exhausting-apparatus. In order to facilitate dipping, a tapered guiding-tube is mounted above the bath and is arranged when tilted to deliver the bottle to an inclined passage which directs it over the tube in the bath. The tube is jointed and counterweighted so that it gives way with the weight of the bottle and discharges it into a basket at the bottom of the bath. The tapered guiding-tube is pivoted and weighted so as to return to a horizontal position after tilting. It is heated by a gas flame entering its lower end. The inclined passage is also heated. Any liquid sucked into the exhausting-tube is trapped in a suitable chamber.

Patent Abridgment 1876 2519

2519. Johnson, J. H., [Christofle, H. A. P., and Bouilhet, H. C.]. June 17.

Obtaining metal. — When commercial nickel is melted with copper or other metal to form an alloy, the composition of the fluxes employed is the same as the composition of bottle glass. The vitreous scoria obtained is pulverized in order to remove the grains of nickel by means of a magnet, and is afterwards re-melted in an ordinary glass-maker’s crucible in order to manufacture bottle glass.

Patent Abridgment 1876 2817

2817. Couper, J., and Richardson, W. H. July 11.

Making lenses; moulding; shaping. — Lenses of the dioptric class, such as are used for ship’s masthead, side, and anchor lights, and for railway lights and analogous purposes, are formed with the several dioptric prisms B, C, D, Fig. 1, surrounding the central convex portion A of a gradually increasing thickness from the centre outwards.


Fig. 2 shows a vertical section of a mould for a lens having a segment greater than a semicircle. It is formed with a bed-plate H having at the centre an opening I to receive the lower part of the block J, and with the sides N, bearing against the flat sides of the block J, hinged to a vertical plate K fixed to the bed-plate. These sides are kept tight against the block by a catch S centered on one of the doors and engaging a square stud on the other. The cover P, formed with a central opening to allow the insertion or withdrawal of the hydraulic plunger Q, is also hinged to the vertical plate K and held down tightly upon the top of the block J by a catch U centered on the bed-plate. The glass having been poured into the mould the plunger Q is inserted so as to distribute it to all parts. As soon as the glass is set, the plunger Q is withdrawn and the upper portion of the mould opened up. The upper portions of the lens, which are left straight by the form of the plunger, are then bent to the required curvature by pressing inwards, by hand or mechanism, two strips of wood applied to projections at ends. A series of parallel lines, or a scale, is engraved on the top of the mould for indicating the curvature, or the glass may be bent over a wooden or other block inserted in the mould.

Patent Abridgment 1876 2950

2950. Wallace, R. W., and Claus, C. F. July 19.

Materials. — Barium carbonate obtained free from iron by a special process, is stated to be applicable for the manufacture of cheap flint glass.

Patent Abridgment 1876 3011

3011. Gee, S., Gibbs, G., and Garnett, F. J. July 26.

Bottle, jar, and like necks, making. — Relates to shaping-tongs for forming a screw-thread within the necks of bottles, jars, and other vessels at the same time that the outer surfaces of the necks are shaped. The central screw core c, Fig. 1, is made square above a plate e, and passes through a slotted plate g, which is fixed at one end i to one of the spring legs a, the other end k sliding through the other leg. When the tool is closed upon the bottle, the core passes into an enlarged part of the slot in the plate g, in which it turns freely, so that the screw core turns with the bottle while the neck is being shaped. When the legs are released, a contracted part of the slot engages the core, holding it stationary while the bottle rotates, so that the bottle is drawn away from the shaping-tool. A cross-piece K forms a guide or bearing for the screw core. In the modification shown in Fig. 5, clutch-teeth l are provided on the end of the screw core c to engage with a toothed block m actuated by links n from the legs a. In another arrangement, the teeth are replaced by a square socket and a projection. When a vertical channel is required through the threads, dies r, Fig. 8, are attached to a sliding piece s actuated by the rods t.


Patent Abridgment 1876 3189

3189. Dryhurst, J., and Woodward, J. Aug. 12. [Provisional protection only.]

Marking. — In forming labels on glass bottles and other vessels, an impression in thin varnish or other adhesive material of the required name &c. is made on the surface of the vessel, and powdered bronze &c. or metallic leaf is applied to the varnish. The impression is then covered with glass capable of fusing at a lower temperature than the glass of the bottle.

Patent Abridgment 1876 3602

3602. Vernon, J. Sept. 14.

©2008 Glass-Study.comElastic supports or buffers. — For preventing the bottoms of decanters, water bottles, wine glasses, goblets, tumblers, and other glass articles from being chipped by contact with hard surfaces, cushions of vulcanized india-rubber or other material are attached to the bottoms. Tumblers are provided with cushions with necks flanged at the ends which fit into recesses in the base of the tumbler. Pins are placed at right-angles to each other through the necks as shown in Fig. 4, and the recesses are filled in with cement. An annular groove is formed in the foot of a wine glass and a ring, shaped as shown in Fig. 3, is sprung into the groove. Water bottles have a rabbeted groove round the bottom, as shown in Fig. 1. A strip of india-rubber is introduced endwise into the groove through a lateral enlargement which is afterwards filled with cement.

Patent Abridgment 1876 3801

3801. Clark, A. M., [Krebs, P. C.]. Sept. 29.

©2008 Glass-Study.comMoulding; bottle necks, making. — Relates to apparatus for making screw or bayonet-joint caps and stoppers of glass &c, and for making internal or external threads on the necks of bottles and other vessels. Fig. 4 shows the apparatus which can be applied to a glass worker’s press. A screw mandrel c is attached to a sliding spindle d which can be rotated by the hand bevel gear shown; the upper end is screwed to feed the mandrel downwards into the glass or other material, which being in the plastic state is moulded about the mandrel. The spindle d may be rotated by a hand-wheel at the top. A hollow mandrel is used for threading the exterior of a bottle neck.

Patent Abridgment 1876 4048

4048. Davis, G. E., and Aitken, J. B. Oct. 19.

Materials. — A mixture of sodium phosphate and aluminate obtained from crude phosphates is heated with silica or insoluble silicates, and, after lixiviating the mass, the residue is employed in the manufacture of glass.

Patent Abridgment 1876 4087

4087. King, J. T., [Hobbs, J. H.]. Oct. 23.

Moulding; pressing. — In a method of making chandeliers, glass or other vitreous material is placed in a plastic or molten condition in the cavity e1, Fig. 5, of a mould B. A die D with radial arms d2 descends into the mould and part of the material flows along radial cavities e2 forming channelled arms which receive the radial gas pipes. The plunger arms may be separate from the central portion and may be arranged in the mould like cores. Pins s on the die descend into cavities s1 in the mould forming holes in the arms for the gas taps b1 Fig. 1, which serve to secure the glass trimmings to the pipes. The central pipe a is surrounded by trimmings c1, c2 which may be tubular or in sections held together by bands or rivets. The bottom of the central stem is shaped like an inverted bowl c, corresponding with the centre piece e of the lower part of the chandelier. These parts may be made separately by blowing and then fastened to the pressed parts. Channelled trimmings for wall brackets may be made in sections or in one piece, the open side being placed uppermost. When oil lamps are used the central stem and arms may be solid.


Patent Abridgment 1876 4217

4217. Humy, P. R. de F. d’. Oct. 31.

Ornamenting. — Relates to a process of ornamenting glass with metal. Gold or other leaf is applied to the moistened surface of a glass cylinder, and the glass is heated until the metal and glass are united. The coated cylinder is then passed into a closely-fitting cylinder, the ends of which are drawn down, one being closed and the other left open. The two cylinders are united by heat, and elongated to part the metal into strips with intermediate clear spaces, after which the glass is blown to the required shape. The outer cylinder may be dispensed with. The metal may be removed in places by an engraving-tool to produce any desired pattern, after which the glass is blown into shape, or a layer of gold may be placed over a layer of silver, the engraving exposing the silver, or the metal may be applied as an amalgam to the crude glass, or hot glass may be rolled in metal leaf or powdered metal, or the moulds in which the articles are formed may be lined with the leaf. The internal surface of an article is coated with metal by applying the leaf when the article is partially formed, or powdered metal is blown into the crude glass.

Patent Abridgment 1876 4398

4398. Duclos, P. C. Nov. 13. Drawings to Specification.

Attaching glass to metal. — Metal labels, trademarks, or other devices may be attached to wine or other glasses by placing them in a red-hot-condition on the red-hot glass. The articles are afterwards annealed. To seal the bottles a metal cap is soldered to a ring of copper, iron, or other metal which is secured to the neck. The ring is placed in a red-hot condition on the red-hot neck just after it is taken out of the mould. The neck is expanded into the ring and thy whole is annealed.

Patent Abridgment 1876 4780

4780. Siemens, F. Dec. 11.

Delivering molten metal. — Relates to means for continuously fining and working out glass in tank furnaces and pots. A fireclay vessel or boat A, Fig. 1, divided by a partition into two compartments C, D, floats in the liquid glass with the holes E in the end of the compartment C just under the surface. The melted material then flows into the compartment C free from impurities, and thence through the opening G in the bottom of the partition to the compartment D, from which it is worked out by the operator. The partition may be raised some height above the top of the vessel to shield the glass in the second compartment somewhat from the heat of the furnace; or the compartment may be covered with a hood provided with an opening for working out the glass. If desired, the fining may be carried still further by providing the boat with three or more separate compartments. Instead of a fixed partition, a ring of fireclay, Fig. 9, floating in the boat, may be used, the glass being worked out from the space within the ring.