Glass and Glass Ware, Paris 1878 - 02




{ Notes 2008:

The original report contained margin notes as an aide to locating information, these are not reproduced as search ability eliminates their value. Where a margin note does include additional data it will be included bracketted in-line using a different colour. }
Glass and Glass Ware - 1878 243

Glass and Glass Ware.

In the reports of the American Commission upon the Paris Exposition of 1867 very little is said upon the subject of glass. A few short notices are to be found on the Siemens furnaces, light-house lenses, Feil’s glass for optical purposes, the plate-glass exhibits, and stained and painted glass, but nothing is said on the technique of glass-making. The reports of the American Commission upon the Vienna Exposition, 1873, contain simply a notice upon the machinery and the application of Tilghman’s sand-blast process, upon cryolite used in glass-making, and a short allusion to chemical glass-ware. It is a little singular that an exhibition held in the center of so important a glass-producing country should have received no notice of its glass industry by the United States Commissioners.

The French report on glass at the Vienna Exposition contains about thirty pages, several of them devoted to statistics upon the extent of the Bohemian glass manufactures; upon the Italian fancy glasses and mosaics; upon plate and window glass, bottles, optical glass, enamels, and pearls; and closing with a notice on the sand-blast process.

The report on our own Centennial Exhibition is scarcely more than a catalogue of exhibitors, and contains no statistical or descriptive information.

The English Centennial report, beside a short dissertation upon the glass of different countries, a flattering notice of our own manufactures, a short historical sketch of them, and a very brief review of the exhibits, contained nothing whatever descriptive of the glass business.

In the French report on the Centennial is a short notice of about four pages, simply noticing our pressed ware and a few things which are novelties to French manufacturers.

In these reports ceramics and glass have the same reporters. These arts are closely allied, but much more interesting descriptions are given in the ceramic department.

In the information furnished by our home manufacturers I received lists of prices which would have been interesting at the time they were given. Business, however, having shown great activity, and the demand for

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goods having increased, these prices are no longer useful as a great rise has taken place of late. It is not necessary to include in these reports the statistics of imports and exports in glass ware, as our government publishes regularly through the Bureau of Statistics at Washington, all information desired on that subject.

The display of glass at the Exposition was principally confined to the French, British, Austrian, Italian, and Belgian sections. A few scattered exhibits were found in Spain, Portugal, Russia, Norway, Sweden, Hungary and Holland, but nothing worthy of special mention. Germany did not exhibit.

The United States, as we have already mentioned, had but a very scant exhibit — a few cut flint-glass articles from the Meriden Glass Company of Connecticut. It is much to be regretted that more of our works did not exhibit some of their celebrated pressed wares. Feeling that America should not remain unrepresented at a world’s fair, the writer of this report had some glass-ware sent to him and exhibited, but unfortunately too late to receive any premium, which it certainly would have received. These goods were exhibited in the United States annex. Although, through delays and slowness of management of the French line of steamers, these goods were only on exhibition about a month, they nevertheless attracted a great deal of attention from the European manufacturers. Many were the inquiries to know how such thin and large pieces could be pressed without mold marks and with such clearness of metal. These samples were furnished by the Central Glass Company of Wheeling, W. Va., a company which well deserves the praise bestowed on it in the French report of our Centennial

Exhibition. Nothing was found to equal or even approach this American pressed ware in any of the other departments. The beauty and brilliancy of the metal, lime glass, excited the admiration of the foreign manufacturers.

France, England, Austria, Bohemia, and Belgium may be said to be the leaders in the glass manufacture of Europe. In articles of art and luxury they are vastly ahead of the other nations, as well as of this country. The artistic taste of France is shown in her glass ware, as in everything that is manufactured in that country. The elegance of the shapes, the lightness of the pieces, and the beauty of the glass combine to make her wares remarkably beautiful.

Austria next, by her graceful wares and pretty decorations, variety of shapes, and beautiful engraving, may be

Glass: Commissioner Blake. 245

said to be unsurpassed, and ranks with France, though she leans more towards the old Germanic art.

England, with her splendid execution of workmanship, her regularity of work, her beautiful engraving, equal in many respects to the Austrian, her splendid and brilliant flint, the purest to be seen, maintains a position in the glass industry of which she is justly proud.

Italy, with her profuse imitation of ancient glass ware, vases of irregular shapes, flasks with flattened sides, awkwardly designed wares in all varieties of colors, more or less perfect, her looking glasses overloaded with a mass of multicolored glass-leaves, her chandeliers containing all the colors imaginable, is not calculated to impress any one with the idea that her work is well executed and harmonious in colors, taste, or design.

Belgium did not represent what she is capable of doing — the largest manufacturers of table ware, etc., not having deemed it worth their while to exhibit. Judging, however, from what I saw five years ago in the depot of the principal manufactory of Belgium, the Val St. Lambert, the glass industry in that country, if not fully up to other countries in high artistic productions, is, in the more strictly useful line, at least capable of competing successfully with other nations.

It has been the aim in this report to give to our manufacturers whatever information I could procure, which I thought might be useful to them.

I acknowledge with pleasure the valuable help received from several persons with whom I corresponded. In Austria, Mr. L. Lobmeyr, the celebrated glass manufacturer of Vienna, very kindly gave me valuable information about the Austro-Hungarian glass industry. His work, “Die Glasindustrie: ihre Geschichte, gegenwartige Entwicklung und Statistic” (the Glass Industry: its History, Present Improvements, and Statistics), is spoken of very highly by competent authority. To Mr. J. M. O’Fallon, the talented artist and designer of Messrs. Thos. Webb & Sons, of Stourbridge, England, I am also indebted for valuable information upon the glass interest of England. The almost total absence of published information in England upon her glass works makes it a difficult matter to collect data upon the subject.

Thanks for information furnished are also due to M. A. Lacroix, of Paris, the celebrated manufacturer of colors for Painting on china and glass.

Messrs. Adams & Co., of Pittsburgh, the well-known glass manufacturers, furnished me such complete information

Universal Exposition At Paris, 1878. 246

about the glass industry in this country that I found it a material help.

Messrs. Bay & Williams, window-glass manufacturers, of Kent, Ohio, furnished very valuable information on that branch of glass making. I desire also to acknowledge valuable help from Mr. Thomas Gaffield, of Boston, an ex-manufacturer, now an amateur and lover of the glass art. His experiments on the discoloration of glass have been eulogized by nearly all competent writers on glass, and his services as an investigator are well known. I have received several publications from their authors and publishers, and wish to express my thanks for their kindness. They are as follows:

“Pottery,” by Geo. Ward Nichols, Cincinnati.

“China Painting,” by Miss McLaughlin, Cincinnati.

“Hints to China and Tile Decorators,” by John C, L. Sparkes, Boston.

Faïence,” by Madame L. H. Brasier de la Vauguyon, Boston.

“China Painting,” and a very fine album, by Camille Piton, principal of National Art Training School, Philadelphia.

“Report of the Belgium Commission on the late Paris Exposition,” from M. Jules Deprez, manager of the Val St. Lambert Glass Works, Belgium.

I am also indebted to M. Paul Dejardin, of the French legation, for valuable books.

I hope to see in our next exhibition, which is now projected, vast improvements in our glass industry, especially in the fine wares which are seen in such abundance abroad, and which are so rarely met here as the production of our home works, and hope that we may soon emancipate ourselves from the importation of plate-glass, and that our home capitalists will see the wide field which is opened for such an industry in this country. The importation of table and other household wares is fast losing its market here and has almost ceased. With the exception of fine wares and part of our window and plate-glass, we are now supplying our home consumption. Nature has favored us beyond example in laying at our doors, in almost every section of the country, an abundance of materials for glass making. Capital and skill is all that is wanting to make us the first glass-producing nation of the earth. If we act wisely, in course of time we shall command many markets now supplied by manufacturers abroad.

Glass: Commissioner Blake. 247


It is very natural for a nation holding an exhibition on her own territory to make a full display of her industry. It is not therefore surprising that the glass interest of France was fully and well represented. Among the most attractive displays stood the Baccarat exhibit, one of the oldest, and the largest glass manufactory of France. Next in importance are the Clichy glass works, those of Pantin, Sèvres, St. Ouen, and Aubervilliers, all near Paris, and the combined establishments of Vallérysthal and Portieux, in the Vosges.

To describe minutely the beautiful wares exhibited by these and other factories would require too much space. I cannot be expected to give more than a summary of the principal and most attractive articles.


This firm had the largest display, occupied a very prominent position in the glass section, and on account of its well-known reputation was the center of attraction. The prominent object was the glass temple of massive cut glass, on the top of which stood a silver statue representing Mercury. This temple was constructed with an open cupola of flying spandrels, each a solid curved beam, supported by six handsome Corinthian columns — the mythological god in a flying attitude. The base showed a balustrade, upon which, at regular intervals, were placed six vases or urns. The whole temple was made entirely of glass pieces, cut and adjusted to form the structure. The effect was grand and beautiful. Although the tout ensemble seemed to be a wonderful piece of design, yet when the workmanship was looked at critically it was easy to perceive that the cutting of the several pieces was far from being regular. Some of the joints were not as close as could be desired, nor were the several pieces cut alike. These defects, however, passed unperceived to the ordinary eye, and the effect of such a dazzling mass of flint glass was really grand. It might be called a tour de force, and but few factories are capable of producing such a handsome and costly edifice. In regard to the color of the glass of this firm, although it shows a vast improvement upon that of 1867, as can be seen by comparing the present exhibit with two large urns or vases which were also exhibited, and had already been shown in

Universal Exposition At Paris, 1878. 248

1867, yet it is still lacking in the brilliancy and dazzling reflection of light of the English flint-glass.

Next to this temple was a very large chandelier, with a solid glass bottom bowl cut in prisms; the drops made of cut green upon ruby doubled glass, the bobêches or sockets cut on the border and painted in enamel colors. Another chandelier, equally large, was entirely of flint glass, the bottom being formed by a large ball cat in diamonds, some of the drops bell-shaped and others cut in prisms, with a sharp point. Quite a number of other chandeliers were also shown, some in colored and white flint; among others, an immense one, with crown top. None of these chandeliers, although very handsome, could compare with the matchless productions of the Oslers, in the British section, in boldness of execution, design, or perfection of work. The following articles are also worthy of mention:

{ margin note: Notices of articles exhibited}

A very handsome toilet box, representing a temple with glass columns, mounted in silver, the panels and top beautifully engraved with the wheel.

Several urns of amber and white glass, acid-etched. These urns or amphorae, with an etched head, were mounted upon tripods of cut glass, with rings hanging from the top of the branches; a very handsome design.

A game of chess, with board and men of glass, the board mounted in gilt metal; the chessmen depolished, one set in white glass and the other in ruby; the squares upon the board had been etched, representing alternate white and ruby squares.

A large variety of quaint-shaped and oval articles engraved in clear and dead surface. The thin wares of this house, although very handsome, do not equal others exhibited elsewhere.

A number of blocks of glass cut in diamond, showing the purity of the glass.

A white glass set, cut in olive pattern, with splits in the middle, cut spirally around the articles; a very handsome pattern of cutting.

Very large and heavy oval dishes cut in deep diamonds.

A light mousseline set, with wheel-engraving.

Another set cut in narrow flutings interspersed with diamonds. A very pretty combination, but the flutes were not cut very regularly.

A thin blown set engraved with an armorial device representing a horse and a deer, in dead surface; finely done.

A number of articles having very thin and long handles made of two rods of glass twisted together. Many of them, however, were put on crooked.

A large number of vases in opal, decorated in the Bohemian style, were well done.

A pair of dishes with twisted handles in deep copper ruby of a very good quality.

Flagons engraved with horse’s heads, handsome borders, and hollow blown handles.

Ruby vases, etched.

A jewel box in gilt panels, engraved, with dead surface.

Glass: Commissioner Blake. 249

Amber and ruby vases, engraved and etched, with four twisted and knotted handles; well executed, but not put on as correctly as the English.

Several articles blown in ribbed or indented molds, free from the creases generally seen in the bottom of the ribs.

A few pieces of thin muslin glass decorated in enamels, in very good taste.

Coffee-pots and salvers in the same style of decoration on white and ruby glass.

Square vases of black glass, with Japanese decorations in very good style; the black glass of especially fine color.

Two very large and heavy glass vases or urns made up of a number of solid pieces of glass cut in bamboo. These vases had already been exhibited in 1867. The glass was in striking contrast with the present quality, being of a gray bluish cast, which kills all the brilliancy of the material.

Four very handsome Grecian solid cut-glass vases in bamboo pattern, with short handles, a spiral cord cut on the body of the vases. Very handsome and striking articles, said to be worth $680 each.

Two large toilet tables of flint glass with tripod feet, the tops cut in small diamonds running spirally, the stem of the same pattern, the feet cut in heavy leaves and projecting knobs. These tables are some of the best specimens of cutting of this house.

A large number of candelabra cut entirely in diamonds, branches, drops, etc.

A lot of small chandeliers with a ball center-piece painted in enamel.

Etageres and fruit bowls in a great variety of patterns.

A blown elephant, depolished in acid, and carrying at the sides small glasses; used as a liquor stand.

A flower stand with a heavy cut fluted bowl mounted in gold, others in silver, the base or foot cut in diamonds.

A set of table ware cut in heavy splits and diamonds, with heavy cut bamboo handles.

Two large hexagon opal lamps, decorated in Japanese style, in gold and colors.

A large variety of articles blown in semi-muslin glass, engraved in depolish, clear and half clear, of various designs.

A variety of small liquor-stand bottles, with twisted stoppers.

Large vases of ruby upon white, in deep depolished engraving, handsomely executed.

A coffee-pot, amber upon white, with salver etched in depolish.

Vases and jewel boxes in a peculiar bluish opal which was not seen elsewhere.

A large solid ball of glass to show the quality of the metal. An excellent glass, free from impurities, stria, or air bubbles, and very fine in color.

A few pieces of flint glass, with spun-glass threads of different colors; all well done.

A jug with four compartments forming the body.

A number of statuettes, depolished in acid.

A very large punch bowl, with large waiter, glasses, and spoons, all cut in handsome diamonds. This punch bowl is one of the largest pieces on exhibition.

Two handsome flat flagons, decorated in enamel colors, representing a peacock and a snake, both exquisite in design.

Universal Exposition At Paris, 1878. 250

I have only described the different styles of goods and decorations, as it is impossible to convey an idea of the styles and designs of wares without illustrations. Much of the acid-etching of this house, although done by the printing process on paper and transferred upon the glass, is of a remarkably fine finish. This is accounted for by the fact that many of the imperfections are corrected by scratching the designs with a needle by skilled workmen. Their enameled decorated ware is in imitation of the Persian style, and is very well done. The colors of their colored glass are very pure and brilliant; I noticed particularly their amber and ruby. The engraving, although well executed, is not in any way superior, and in many cases is not equal to the English or Austrian. The decorations upon the opal glass vases and the thin blown wares of this firm are very handsome. In a word, the late Exposition showed us that the well-deserved reputation of this house is as good as ever, but it cannot be denied that some of the glass works around Paris are producing goods fully equal, and sometimes superior. For instance, the thin blown muslin glass wares of Clichy cannot be surpassed.

The Baccarat glass is well known in this country, and is often to be seen on the shelves of our dealers. Some of our manufacturers recognize the fact that the goods of this house are models of taste, and we find their shapes reproduced in pressed glass with very good success.


This is the next firm in importance, and is noted for the beauty of its wares. The variety of goods of this house is almost as great as that of Baccarat. Among the noticeable articles are the following:

Two large urns, ruby upon opal, the ruby plain, of a dark hue, but very brilliant. This combination makes a very handsome shade of color.

A large bowl, of twisted filigree laid horizontally, and kept very straight in blowing, the bowl very thin, mounted on a gilt stand.

A pair of crystal bowls, with spiral bamboos, cut and scalloped border.

A water set, rose upon white, cut in diamonds. This bowl shows the peculiar defect inherent to almost all doubled glass, viz: the irregularity of thickness of the upper coat of glass. In looking at the stem, which was cut in flutes, the irregularity was quite perceptible. The waiter of this set was square, and also cut in diamond, with a scalloped border.

Handsome vases of black glass, decorated in enamels of different colors and in dead gold; very handsome.

A large oval bowl with solid ball foot, scalloped border, cut in heavy diamonds.

Glass: Commissioner Blake. 251

Another of the same shape, opal inside, and rice-colored glass outside. The combination of these two opal colors gives a peculiar shade to the article which is very pleasant.

Jugs of depolished glass, with a hole in the middle of the body, and a spirally twisted snake handle.

Venetian bowls, with twisted stems, blown very thin, with deep, bulging pockets on the border. These are made by blowing in molds having recesses. In heating the article the pockets deepen and throw the border into scallops.

Two lamps of dark ruby, lined with dark or black glass; the body crackled, and the inside lining showing through the cracks. This is accomplished by reheating the two layers and shaping. By repeated reheatings the colors are metallized.

Very thin blown sets, cut in very small line diamonds; a handsome and difficult piece of work.

Two large, heavy crystal baskets, with solid handles and sides pressed in; well blown.

Vases of opal, ruby, and white glass, with gold metallic flakes.

A couple of covered dishes in ruby, engraved in the Bohemian style; ruby coat put on by painting the outside.

A lamp of ruby on opal, showing a very pretty and soft  rose color by the combination of these two shades.

Several jugs of white and ruby crackled glass, with spiral snake handles around the body; handsomely made.

Thin bowls in white crystal, with opal filigree; the stems made of four filigree tubes laid parallel; a fine piece of work.

Vases of opal upon white, mounted in gilt frames; vases painted in white enamel, Japanese style; vases in greenish glass, mounted in gilt metal and painted in clear and dead gold, representing dragons, in the Japanese style.

Sets of very thin crystal, with handles and stoppers blown hollow, engraved in light patterns and filled with dead gold; a strikingly handsome effect.

Lamps in ecroid green upon opaque glass, mounted in bronze.

Two very handsome light-rose-colored jugs, with white crystal foot, mouth scalloped, hollow handle, engraved in depolish.

Toilet flat boxes in colored glass, with white glass powder spread over; not a happy combination.

Two large ruby cornucopias mounted on a ruby square base; border of cornucopia scalloped; the whole mounted in gilt metal.

A set of thin muslin-crystal glass, with engraved monogram, filled with dead gold.

A set of the same style in green glass; both very handsome styles.

A large casket in deep ecroid green upon white, cut in diamonds, mounting in bronze; a handsome article.

Very large opal vases, plain and decorated, mounted in gilt frames.

Lamps of different colors, mounted in gilt metal, with tulip-shaped globes, engraved, etched, and cut.

Bottles, vases, and bowls of spiral filigree in Venetian style; very handsomely done, and much more regular than the Italian wares. The opal, black, ruby, and all other colors of this firm are very fine.

Peculiar spirally ribbed crystal articles, with opal spiral ribs. These seem to have been made with alternating ribs of white and opal filigree, upon which glass has been blown and the article subsequently shaped.

Universal Exposition At Paris, 1878. 252

This firm exhibited a number of small articles made of a. glass covered with a coating of pearl-colored substance, which is said to have been discovered by M. Clémendot, the celebrated chemist, who is an authority on glass in Europe. It is probably an oxidation on the outside surface of the glass, and seems to have been produced by an acid. I do not see anything very promising in this, however, as the color is lusterless and very uneven in shade. It is not even a good imitation of the false pearls which are so well made in Paris.

The thin blown muslin wares of this house are remarkable in regard to their extreme thinness and regularity of workmanship. Their hollow handles, stems, and stoppers are also wonderfully well made. The white flint and colored glass are of excellent quality. The ability displayed by their workmen is striking, and all the goods of this house will stand favorably in comparison with those of other manufacturers more famed.

Messrs. Maes Brothers are the proprietors of these works.

Monot Père et Fils et Stumpf.

These works made a very handsome show of white and colored glass, equal to any in many respects. The principal articles I noticed were as follows:

A large, handsome, and solid table of crystal, the top cut in rectangular diamond, and the border cut in a raised scallop, the leg and foot also cut in diamonds. The different pieces making this table are fitted into one another by means of recesses and sockets; the work is so beautifully done, the metal of such purity, that the joints cannot be detected. This is one of the most regular and handsome pieces of work in the Exposition, superior to the tables shown in the Baccarat exhibit. This table was sold to the Shah of Persia for $1,500.

A number of vases engraved in heavy relief, well executed.

A large crystal dish, decorated in enamel colors, finely done; but this style of decoration is more suitable to porcelain than to glass.

Vases in ruby glass, engraved, but inferior in color and work.

A large lot of crackled ware, showing two and three colors; some showing only two colors up to a certain point and three colors above; some show deep cracks and others a smooth, uniform surface.

Vases with yellow metallic flakes, (in the style of the Aurora Glass Company, of the British section), of different colored glass; some crackled, some plain.

A large variety of aventurine goods, very beautiful. This house is celebrated for the beauty of its aventurine glass.

A few decorated articles in the Persian style, with enamel colors.

Articles in opal filigree, well done.

Paper weights of solid glass, containing glass snakes, lizards, squirrels, and flowers; air-bubbles are distributed in the mass, looking like pearl-drops.

Glass: Commissioner Blake. 253

A large lump of aventurine glass, showing how irregularly the yellow spots are distributed.

A coiled snake, with head erect, of two colored glasses, cut in spots to show both colors, mounted upon a piece of mirror; an interesting piece of workmanship, showing great dexterity in coiling the snake.

Two large candelabras, urn-shaped, cut in bamboo, heavy diamonds, and leaves, glass branches and drops bell-shaped; a very fine piece of work, Said to be worth $5,000 the pair.

Articles with hollow handles and others with three twisted branches.

A peculiar glass to be found in this house, and said to have been invented by M. Monot, one of the proprietors, is a shell blown of black glass, having a copper-colored inside-lining thin enough to be transparent. This is presumed to be a metallic oxidation taking place while the article is blown. Several fancy articles made of different colored glasses were lined with this metallic coating, and looked very pretty.

Very large crystal bowls cut in octagonal diamonds and fillets across the face; scalloped borders.

A dark ruby dish in very fine color.

Large oval and round bowls, cut in elegant designs, representing flowers in imitation of high-relief clear engraving.

Jewel boxes in colored glass made of two round shells, mounted in gilt metal and decorated in enamel.

Decanters and goblets completely cut all over the surface in bamboo.

Thin muslin goblets, with engraved clear border, in the style of engine-lathe engraving on metal.

Paper weights in millefiori of roses, leaves, and fruit, embedded in lumps of clear glass.

A very fine deep ecroid green bowl, cut in flutes, cross-cut with fine fillets, and decorated over in clear gold.

Several muslin bowls with colored cut and twisted serpent stems.

A rose-colored vase with yellow metallic flakes in the mass; a fine contrast.

Thin blown crystal goblets and decanters, decorated and gilt in the Persian style.

A handsome water set in very light rose color, engraved and cut.

Two deep-blue vases, engraved and cut.

A number of vases in the Bohemian style, decorated in enamel and gold; well done.

Clear amber articles, with light designs in white enamel; the effect is very pretty.

Articles of crystal with amber outside, cut and engraved; also very handsome.

Liquor caskets mounted in gilt frames, with bottles and glasses cut in diamond, the frame forming a canopy.

Set of muslin glass goblets with cut stems and monograms; very finely blown.

Light rose-colored articles engraved in depolish and clear; a beautiful color.

A jug and tall goblet of amber upon white, showing parts cut and engraved, the amber color covering the pieces all over, even the cut and engraved parts; a fine specimen of what can be done in the way of decoration, even after the article has been cut.

Vases of handsome black glass decorated in enamel.

A paper weight, containing a lizard of colored glass, which had been cut in several parts before being inclosed in the glass.

Universal Exposition At Paris, 1878. 254

The engraving of this house cannot be compared with that of the English and Austrian sections. To remedy the defects shown in colored glass of two colors superposed when cut, it would be advisable to select designs which leave the cut parts in relief, thereby avoiding the unpleasant effect of irregular lines caused by the unevenness of the layers of glass. In the works of this house, as of most others, I noticed many irregularities in the cutting of fluted articles, the lines being crooked and the width of the flutes uneven.

I do not think that patterns cut or engraved in clear relief are pretty; the designs are confused by the reflection of light, and to appreciate this work one must get close to the articles in order to distinguish the outlines of the patterns. The diamond cutting of this house is excellent, and the glass of a very good quality.

LISSAUTE & C0SS0N’S GLASS WORKS at Aubervilliers, near Paris.

This firm also made a fine exhibit. The principal noticeable articles were:

A large number and variety of their seltzer-water bottles of white and colored glass — blue, ecroid, amber, ruby, and other colors — cut, engraved, and gilt. The colors are all very good, especially the amber.

Large black glass vases decorated in gold, Japanese style.

Lamps with incrustations of colored and pearl ornaments on black glass, Japanese figures and pearl-colored flowers in relief.

Large gas-reflectors of colored glass, decorated and plain.

Opal globes and reflectors molded in convex ribs.

Vases in light-blue glass, painted in black, so as to show the blue through; a very pretty effect.

Two very large urns — one blue, the other rose-colored — 4œ feet high, made of three pieces.

Large globes in opal and white glass, etched in depolish, 2œ feet high; also a large etched globe, egg-shaped, 2 feet high.

A couple of vases in white crystal, decorated in white enamel; not a very successful attempt.

The colored glass of this house is very good, especially the black. This house had the largest vases and globes in the French section.

at Vallerysthal (Alsace-Lorraine) and Portieux (Vosges).

This establishment manufactures half-flint glass, and is one of the few establishments exhibiting pressed glass. The striking articles are a variety of candlesticks in different colored glass; blue amber, ecroid, etc. This pressed ware is inferior to our own, but is some of the best shown in the French section.

A large exhibit of goblets, decanters, tumblers, etc., cut in short flutes, such as are used in all the restaurants of Paris.

Plain blown articles, with light engravings.

Glass: Commissioner Blake. 255

Two large vases, with bronze feet decorated on a background imitating bronze, with fillets in dead and clear gold.

Opal vases mounted in gilt metal and decorated; a good contrast.

Large vase with metal gilt mounting and handles, also a gilt-metal border at the base, decorated with birds and nests in relief, looking like tarnished tin ornaments, cemented or melted upon the surface of the glass.

A set of vases with covers decorated in dead silver.

Large candelabra of cut glass, with flat drops cut on the angles.

Opal vases decorated with gilt-metal mounting.

Large black glass vases decorated in raised enamel colors.

A variety of pressed ordinary articles in amber.

A molded set showing convex ribs and deep splits across the ribs.

Pressed glass match-stands in black glass, with raised patterns, upon which opal beads are put on; some beads in dead gold and others in white enamel; the white makes the best contrast.

The color of the glass of this house is inferior and has a low brownish reflection, which is unsightly. The pressed ware is much below the standard of American glass; the mold-marks are quite perceptible, and the goods have the peculiar greasy and wavy surface of pressed ware. The proprietors of these works were very much pleased with the American pressed ware the writer had on exhibition in the American section. Were it not for the difficulties created by the French tariff, American pressed glass could be exported to France with advantage.

This firm, as I mentioned, has two glass works. Those of Vallerysthal have two Siemens furnaces, with 12 pots each, a Boëtius furnace with 10 pots and another Boëtius furnace with 6 pots. These works employ 920 workmen. The Portieux Works have three Siemens furnaces, of 12 pots each, and 715 workmen. All these furnaces use coal. Fifty-two thousand eight hundred pounds of glass are melted every day. Colored and white glass is manufactured into table and other hollow wares, pressed in all patterns. The cutting-shop machinery is put in motion by hydraulic motors and by steam. The buildings are usually one story high, with glass roofs. Five hundred and twenty workmen are employed in these shops.

The engraving is done with the wheel and hydro-fluoric acid. The firm is about putting up a sand-blast apparatus. The decorations are made by the printing process or by hand, and are fired in a muffle.

This firm has ordered a press and a set of molds from a Pittsburgh maker, thereby recognizing the superiority of American pressed glass (vide infra).

Universal Exposition At Paris, 1878. 256


This factory is also situated a short distance from Paris, and is one of the houses which, like those previously mentioned, has much to be commended in its exhibits. The principal articles worthy of notice were:

A number of very thin blown decanters, sugar bowls, goblets, etc., with hollow handles and stoppers.

A large vase of opal and green glass, crackled, the opal spots predominating and the green showing only in small spots.

A basket of opal and green, showing squares of green glass between opal fillets; very handsome.

A large variety of finely cut table services.

A very fine vase of opal, ruby, and white glass, cut, showing opal squares, ruby fillets, and clear glass squares, the foot cut showing the ruby and clear glass and the fillets in opal.

Vases executed in the same style in clear opal and green spiral diamonds. This effect is evidently produced by cutting away certain layers and leaving the others — a style of cutting which can readily be done with very thin coatings of colored glass, leaving the article with an apparently even surface, owing to the thinness of the coatings.

A very large oval bowl in crystal and deep blue, beautifully cut in diamonds.

Solid baskets of crystal in one piece, with the handle cut out.

Blue and gilt vases.

A very large crystal candelabrum, with six branches very heavily cut in diamonds and bamboos, handsomely cut drops; one of the largest pieces of the Exposition.

A variety of richly cut glass ware, some with heavy knob borders and others with very deep splits and diamonds.

A large piece of green aventurine glass, made with sesquioxide of chrome. This aventurine is harder than the Venetian; the distribution of the green spots, however, is as irregular as in the yellow aventurine. I do not think that this green aventurine will ever be used to any great extent, as the contrast between the body of the glass and the green crystals is but slight. Several pieces made of this glass were exhibited, but none looked well.

Heavy oval bowl in ruby upon white crystal, handsomely cut in heavy diamonds.

A variety of filigree and other Venetian wares; finely executed.

Vases with heavy relief clear engraving and cutting.

Articles with half-clear engraving.

Vases of dark ruby upon opal, with handles of ruby upon white and base of the same; a happy combination.

Vase of crystal, opal, and light ruby superposed.

A vase of light ruby upon crystal, engraved very deep and clear.

A large variety of decorated wares.

The quality of the flint glass of this house is very good, with the exception of a slight tinge of gray. The colored glass is very pure.


Two very large decorated vases, mounted in gilt metal, for candelabra, with branches in metal, foot cut with clear and depolished deep engraving; price, $1,000 a pair.

Glass: Commissioner Blake. 257

A very long trumpet glass, 7Πfeet high, engraved in clear flowers.

A large variety of white and colored goods, engraved in relief.

Decanters, blown with inside bamboos.

Jugs, with tears of white and blue glass over the face — a very ugly pattern, in imitation of Arabian glass.

Vases with handles attached to each side and bent over together.

Decorations in raised enamels on different kinds of wares.

A vase, ruby upon white, engraved in depolish; very handsome.

A newer vase of two joined trumpets, with painted bodies; worth $140 a pair.

Vases decorated with metallic ornaments in relief, in the antique style.

A few pieces of Venetian glass ware.


Large prismatic blocks of glass, very free from striae and bubbles, but low in color.

The usual ordinary glass ware for restaurants.

Blown and cut Venetian articles in white and colored glass.

Three branch-stemmed articles; well executed.

A few decanters decorated with spiral colored threads, put on widely apart.

A decanter of amber upon crystal; the combination makes a very pretty and brilliant light-amber color.

A few articles with English shell handles, but badly put on and very irregular.

Light blown articles with convex ribs, twisted in finishing.

Muslin thin glasses, decorated lamps, etc.

The goods of this house are only ordinary and deserve no special notice.


A large number of tumblers, decanters, sugar bowls, flagons, liquor-sets in half-muslin glass, principally cut in flutes.

SCHMID & DU HOUX, Fains (Meuse).

A variety of pressed goods, sugar bowls, saucers, candlesticks, fruit-dishes, and the usual common restaurant wares. The pressing of this house is quite inferior, full of wrinkles and mold-marks, and the glass of inferior quality. The only article worthy of notice was a liquor-stand, with four united compartments, having glass cocks fitted in each.

BOISSIÈRE & FILS, Gast (Orne).

Chemical and druggist ware. A peculiar patented decanter, blown with an open bottom; the bottom piece is pressed separately, with a projection, around which is placed a rubber ring; this bottom piece is forced into the decanter, and by its pressure against the sides makes a water-tight joint. Also a four-compartment decanter, with separate stoppers, a large glass still, and candy jars.

Universal Exposition At Paris, 1878. 258

VEUVE E. A. GUERNER, Croismarc (Meurthe-et-Moselle.)

Plain vases in colors, some ruby on crystal, green on crystal; dark blue vases painted and ornamented; cut and pressed table ware. Most of the goods of an inferior quality.

MEYER F1LS, FRÈRES. Donzy (Niècre).

Perfumery bottles, druggist and chemical ware, preserve jars and glasses, flasks, etc. Nothing remarkable except a peculiar means of stopping bottles by the use of an inverted cup-shaped top, which is made to cover the stopper. Around the neck of the bottle is placed a rubber ring in a recess; the cup is pushed over the ring and thereby forms a tight joint.

The works of this firm use a furnace of their own invention, burning coal for melting and wood for working. They melt in 11 to 12 hours 9 pots, containing about 800 pounds, with an expenditure of 28 to 30 lbs. of coal. They use cast-iron and wooden molds. Each set of workmen is composed of two blowers, a finisher, and a carrier boy; 14 of these sets work on the furnace, say 50 hands, making per day twenty to twenty-five thousand pieces.


A lot of pressed ware, principally tumblers, very thick and pressed very badly. A large assortment of plain blown and cut restaurant wares, cut pretty regularly. An immense decanter cut in punties and squares of cross-cut diamonds, the cutting done very finely.

M. A. COYEN, Paris.

Bottles stoppered by means of screw-threads pressed upon the neck, fitting a cap having a corresponding screw and containing an elastic washer inside — a well-known system in this country; yet it is heralded by this maker as a great novelty, having required the making of several new tools, which he claims to be patented. The same system of closing is applied to the bottom of bottles, which are screwed to the bottle and made tight by a washer.

C. LE BLANC, Paris.

Black glass vases, decorated and gilt; also crystal vases of the same style; ordinary pressed ware of the usual inferior quality; common restaurant tumblers and decanters; a seven-compartment bottle and deceiving doubled-sided goblets.

I regret very much that I have not been able to procure cuts of the beautifully shaped glass ware of France.