Glass and Glass Ware, Paris 1878 - 03




Glass and Glass Ware - 1878 259

Plate glass.

The principal plate-glass manufactory of France, the “Société Anonyme des Manufactures de Glaces et Produits Chimiques de St. Gobain, Chauny, et Cirey,” owns the works of St. Gobain, Chauny, Cirey, and Montlucon, in France, and Mannheim and Stolberg, in Germany. There are two other factories besides at Jeumont and Aniche.

The following plain white and silvered plates were exhibited by these firms:

St. Gobain: 1 plate 21.15 feet x 13.48 = 285.10 square feet, white, 7/16 in. thick. 1,573
St. Gobain: 1 plate 17.90 feet x 9.94 = 117.92 square feet, silvered, 7/16 in. thick. 770
Jeumont: 1 plate 17.81 feet x 11.51 = 205 square feet, white, 7/16 in. thick. 1,100
Jeumont: 1 plate 17.22 feet x 10.82 = 182.12 square feet, silvered, 7/16 in. thick. 770
Aniche: 1 plate 15.76 feet x 10.43 = 164.38 square feet, white, 7/16 in. thick. 660
Aniche: 1 plate 14.76 feet x 9.05 = 132.58 square feet, silvered, 7/16 in. thick. 550

The St. Gobain works furnished a number of mirrors to the new Grand Opera of Paris; among others one 21.29 x 9.67 feet; others from 45.12 to 52.48 feet long. In the Exhibition of 1855 these works exhibited a plate 17.61 x 11.02 feet = 194.06 superficial feet. The Cirey works had one of 199.06 superficial feet. In the Exposition of 1867 the St. Gobain works had a plain plate 19.97 x 11.58 feet = 208.90 superficial feet; Cirey one of 21.50 x 10.59 feet = 227.68 superficial feet.

St. Gobain also exhibited 3/16inch thick plate-glass for windows, weighing only 22 to 26 pounds per square meter; thick polished slabs, such as were used in the aquarium, 7.56 feet long by 2.60 feet wide, 9/16, 11/16, 14/16 inch thick; a series of silvered reflectors, deck-lights, bull’s eyes, plates of a rough cast glass, smooth on one side and corrugated on the other, used for roof covering, weighing about 27 pounds per square meter, from 1 to 2/8 inches thick. The designs on the surface consist of fine parallel corrugations or small and large corrugated and plain lozenges. The large lozenges are used as a substitute for painted or stained glass in churches for economical reasons. The small lozenges are used for partitions, door-panels, windows, covered yards, hot-houses, roofs, etc.

They also make glass tiles, pressed in imitation of the clay article. These tiles are used for roofing and are molded in

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such a shape that they can be laid alongside of one another making tight-fitting joints without any cement or mortar; it takes 13 tiles to cover a square meter; each tile weighs about 5œ pounds.

Glass flooring made of flags or slabs of rough cast glass are also manufactured in large quantity by these works; they consist of pieces 6 x 13/8 inches thick, 11 inches long, and weigh 165 pounds per square meter; the upper surface is generally molded in diamonds. Pavements of glass are also exhibited; these are made in the same style as the slabs, with the upper surface molded in diamonds, but are much thicker, and are intended for pavements for carriage ways. They are made of cubes of about 6 x 6œ inches, and weigh each 19.80 pounds; they are sold by weight. Rough slabs are also made of 6.56 x 2.65 feet, varying in thickness from 9/16 inch to 1œ inches; weight from 213 pounds to 492.

This company also exhibited all the different rough cast glasses used in the manufacture of light-house apparatus, such as rings, parts of rings, and rough lenses. As a specimen of the thickness that can be given to cast glass, there was shown a disk 4.03 feet in diameter by 81/8 inches thick, weighing more than 1,320 pounds. This disk is an exact duplicate of the one offered to the French Observatory to make a mirror for their large telescope.

As curiosities this company exhibited some chrome aventurine, devitrified glass and glasses differently colored by metallic oxides. Also a number of beveled pieces of plate glass with holes drilled at both ends for inserting screws. These plates are used for facing doors where the hand usually presses them in opening and shutting, so as to prevent the paint from getting soiled.

The silvered plate of Aniche is said to have been silvered by a patented process, by M. Kuhliger-Bouvet, 82 Rue St. Martin, Paris. This firm also exhibited a large number of cylinders for window glass; fluted glass, thin and thick, plain and depolished; ship's deck-lights; door-plates, cut beveled; also roofing tiles made of blown and curved glass, with a turned-up ear for fastening them; these tiles when laid imitate the ceramic tile roofing.

As to the quality and perfection of work of the French plate-glass works, it is hardly necessary to say anything, as it is a well-known fact that French plate glass has an unsurpassed and world-wide reputation. The same may be said of their other qualities and styles of glasses.

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Window glass.

The display of window glass in the French section was very full, and represented a state of advanced manufacture equal to any, both in plain and colored glass.

M. A. Pelletier et ses Fils, of the Saint Just Glass Works, had a very full and handsome display, consisting of a number of very large cylinders in plain white and different colored glass, green, yellow, blue, pink, ruby, opal, purple, and greenish blue, all of very fine and pure quality; also large sheets of the same colored glass. A fine assortment of etched sheets of pink and green on white depolished ground. A very fine sheet of amber glass, with dark ruby surface, etched by acid, the amber side depolished — a very fine piece of work, and a happy combination of colors. Specimens of different colored glass with the surface covered over with powdered glass, looking like rough sand paper. This powdered glass had been pressed enough to make it adhere to the surface of the object. A small sheet of opal glass upon white, with certain designs, ground and filled in with gold, the back of the glass being covered with a protecting surface. A large clock dial of opal, very handsome; also handsome shields, engraved and painted. Nearly all the cylinders exhibited in colored glass had a background of white glass. A large dial of black glass, very beautiful. Sheet-glass, white ground, covered with violet, cobalt blue, red, opal, gold, pink, ordinary blue, etc. Also other sheets of opal upon yellow, opal upon green, and opal upon purple, all very pretty. Sheets of dark-amber colored in the mass, very fine.

Renard Père et Fils & Co., of the glass works of Fresnes, exhibited different thicknesses of window glass, running from the thinnest up to very thick plates — some plain and others depolished — blown glass curved tiles for roofing. This firm exhibited very long and very large cylinders. I could not get the sizes, but they were fully equal to those described in the Belgian exhibits. They also exhibited common wine bottles.

Fogt Frères et Lemaire, of Aniche, also exhibited very large cylinders, plain and depolished, same as the preceding firm.

Société Anonyme des Verreries d'Hénin-Liétard, of (Pas-de-Calais), had on exhibition colored sheet and cylinder glass in blue, bright violet, brown, red-violet, and greenish violet, light and deep yellow, Isly green (a bluish green), corrugated, sheet, and cylinder glass.

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Compagnie Générale des Verreries de la Loire et du Rhône, at Rive-de-Gier, exhibited a very line lot of colored window glass in very good colors; also several cylinders of blue, yellow, dark green, and ruby, of very good quality.

Lemaire Frères, at Aniche, furnished the sheet-glass for the Exposition; they had a good show of plain window glass and corrugated sheets. This firm exhibited a mirror said to have been “silvered” without preparation. The reflecting surface looked very somber, much darker than the mercury amalgam or silver coating.

E. Parmentier & Co., at Fresnes, M. Delille & Co., at Aniche, were also exhibitors of very good quality of plain and corrugated sheet and cylinder window glass.

Richarme Frères, of Rive-de-Gier, exhibited a lot of large cylinders in plain glass, 7.21 feet high, .94 feet in diameter; another 6.56 feet high, 1.11 feet diameter.

A. Catherine, of Paris, exhibited a sheet of glass coated with “vitrified stone ware,” said to perfectly intercept the rays of the sun, and not to stain with grease. To all appearance it looks like an ordinary depolished sheet.

Baboneau, of Paris, had a large assortment of clock shades in white glass, round, oval, and flattened, of very good quality, clear and thin; also colored glass in sheets of blue and other colors, plain and depolished; a very fine plate of black glass, very perfect.

A. N. Miton, Paris, had an exhibit of pin-cushions and artificial flower stands, made of solid glass, cut and engraved, some in plain white and others in flashed colored glass, the whole covered over with square heavy glass covers or shades. The forms were varied, some round and others square. These stands looked very handsome, and are quite ornamental.


The display of mirrors, with decorated and ornamented frames made of glass, gilt and black wood, was very extensive and very fine. The workmanship, as a general thing, was faultless, and the designs and patterns of the frames in very good taste.

The principal exhibitors were:

C. A. Maugin-Lesur, of Paris, who made a magnificent display of beveled mirrors set in frames of glass, cut and engraved, with detached, handsome patterns, fastened over the frames by means of screws covered over with

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pressed glass heads, hiding the screw-heads. These mirrors were silvered by the Lenoir process, without the use of mercury or tin. A variety of handsome hand-glasses, engraved and cut. A large mirror frame made of cut and fitted strips of blue, ruby, and gilt glass, handsomely cut and engraved. This house displays rare artistic taste in the goods exhibited. I was not asked to look upon any frames with the unfortunate leafage ornamentation of the Italian section among the goods of this house. In fact, none of that style of decoration could be seen in the French section.

D. Brémard, of Paris, besides exhibiting a number of finely beveled cut mirrors, set in glass, frames, finely engraved and cut, had a handsome and attractive cut-glass frame, containing a clock, a barometer, and a thermometer, the whole front being made of glass except the hands of the clock.

There were also to be seen small plates of glass, cut in bevels, with handsome engraved borders, used as photograph frames.

Lorémy & Rochet, of Paris, exhibited a parlor cupboard with mirror, being made entirely of silvered plateglass panels, with decorated shields handsomely cut and engraved. This piece of furniture was also lined inside entirely with silvered plates, with the exception of the shelves, which were of plain plates. This buffet, or cupboard, was surmounted with a beautiful beveled mirror, having a plate-glass frame plated with slabs of blue glass and silvered white glass, cut, engraved, scalloped border, etc. This magnificent but rather fragile object was said to be worth $1,000.

M. Hazard, of Paris. A fine display of glass mirror frames, cut and engraved. Among others, I noticed one with a heavy diamond-cut border, another with a blue-glass cut and engraved border. These frames are mostly ornamented with clear and depolished engraved, silvered and clear-glass plates.

Max J. Fuchs, also of Paris. A variety of toilet boxes made of plate-glass panels; hand-glasses; cut, beveled, convex, and concave mirrors; hand-glasses with enamel decorated borders in handsome designs.

C. Martin, Paris. A beautiful glass mirror with buffet underneath, the panels of which are made of convex clear plate, the bottom of this buffet made of a silvered mirror. A very artistic and handsome piece of furniture; price $750.

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Veuve Guenne et Gilquin, Paris. Besides the usual handsome mirrors set in glass and gilt wooden frames, this firm had quite a number of handsome toilet boxes of thick plate-glass, mounted in gilt metal frames. Also, a small obelisk in solid glass, cut in imitation of the monument of the Place de la Concorde.

The following were also exhibitors: C. Buquet, G. Bay, F. J Baulard, P. M. Compain, Schick-Weiler, A. Miellot, C. Girardin, H. Boucher, E. Paillard, E. Carpentier, E. Radius, A. Benda, all of Paris. Their exhibits consisted of beveled mirrors set in plate-glass frames, depolished and with clear engraving, plated over with cut pieces of plate glass, silvered, colored, or clear white; glass frames decorated in the usual style, but having a black background showing through the glass; wooden frames in white and yellow, in deep dead black, in carved wood, painted white and gilt; mirrors combined with buffets or cupboards; toilet glasses, set three together upon a stand; hand-glasses, plain and decorated; and common mirrors of blown plate, set in plain wooden frames.

Decorated glass.

In the decoration of fancy wares with enamel colors, in imitation of antique glass, the French seem to be much ahead of all other nations, excepting, perhaps, the Austrians, who are so well known for their fine decorated glass. The French, however, have produced some work in that line which, I think, cannot be equaled.

P. J. Brocard, of Paris, one of the most celebrated decorators, exhibited a variety of vases, bowls, plates, dishes, flagons, goblets, beautifully decorated in different colored enamel and gilded borders. These wares are made in imitation of antique glass, Arabian, Persian, and Roman. They are principally made of a green and brown tinted glass, with raised enamel designs. The conception and execution are in the highest style of art, and though I cannot particularly admire this style of decoration, the wonderful skill of the maker is undeniable. The goods exhibited were nearly all marked sold. I cannot undertake to describe them without the help of illustrations.

Gallé, of Nancy, another maker in the same line, exhibited wares decorated in the same style as Brocard, but he also decorates crystal or flint glass in enamels, and with handsome engraving. There was shown a peculiar Arabian vase of clear glass, with cover, decorated in arabesque, finely executed; vases decorated with a combination

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of engraving and enamel colors. The work of this house is also of a very high order.

Albert Pfulb, Paris, also a decorator of antique glass, showed a large Arabian vase from the Alhambra, copied from the original in the museum at Grenada; a very fine piece of work. Bowls, vases, goblets, cups, tumblers, all decorated in enamels of different colors, and in clear and dead gold.

E. Rousseau, Paris, had on exhibition Venetian glass ware, painted and decorated, heavily engraved in relief; odd-shaped glasses, painted, enameled, and gilt; oval flattened jugs of a greenish glass; other jugs of the same having a hole in the middle of the body; vases with blue glass borders, and tears distributed over the surface.

Ernie, Paris. Large flower vases decorated in enamels of various colors; a dish with a gold ground, a central portrait, and fancy border; toilet boxes of bluish glass, with painted decorations.

Ch. Brunetti, Paris, had a very handsome display of enameled decorated wares, consisting of colored vases, jugs, lamps, etc., said to have been decorated by the printing process. The execution was remarkably fine, but it is supposed that the defects which naturally would arise in transferring had been corrected by hand. Two handsome vases of opal glass, with a crystal outer coating, containing silver metallic powder, painted in heavy relief enamel colors; vases decorated with landscapes and figures, the work wonderfully well made; bowls, goblets, decanters, cups, decorated in Persian style; ruby pitchers decorated in heavy gold and colored enamels, very handsome; white crystal vases with enamel borders of green, gold, and pink; white crystal light articles decorated in very light designs of enamel; toilet boxes decorated and set in gilt frames; two vases of black glass, with silver powder in the mass, covered over with white crystal, decorated in enamel and dead gold fillets — a very handsome combination; black glass vases with enamel decoration in colors and gold. The decorations of this house are very handsome and superior in execution. I wish to call particular attention to some of the combinations of colors in the wares made of different plated glass. The ruby and opal produce a very pleasant color; enamel colors on ruby are also very handsome. Black vases decorated in gold and raised enamel are to be highly praised. Light patterns on white crystal, with the opaque colors of enamels, are to be encouraged.   This house, by its fine display of decorated

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wares by the printing process recently introduced into France, has shown what can be expected of a system which must become popular, owing to the low price and comparative perfection with which these goods can be decorated. I should like to see this method of decoration introduced into this country, where the demand for decorated ware is already great and rapidly increasing, and where the defects naturally inherent to such a system would pass unperceived with the great mass. In my opinion, this style of ornamentation is capable of a wide introduction.

J. B. Villaume, Pantin, had a very handsome exhibit of etched glass with hydrofluoric acid, consisting of table and fancy articles on plain white and flashed glass. Goblets of blue upon white, etched, representing the celebrated Carpeau group of the Grand Opera front; views of the Trocadéro building of the Exposition; portraits of celebrated men, very finely done; globes; lanterns in flashed colored glass; a looking-glass, etched, representing the wolf and the sheep, with an etched border, the whole silvered over after being etched. The beauty of the work of this house was another example of the handsome ornamentation that can be done on glass by the etching process. I was particularly pleased with the different tones of etching produced on the same object, some entirely depolished, others showing different degrees of clear and semi-clear tones.

A. Bucan & Dupontieu, at Creteil; V. Becker, Pantin; G. Trauffler, Pantin; Boirre Ainé, G. Pinck, M. Jean, and Buglet, of Paris, also exhibited very fine enamel decorated wares, such as vases, goblets, tumblers, toilet-boxes, jugs, plate-glass plaques, looking-glass frames with enamel decorated borders, candle lusters, mounted in gilt, and silvered metal bobéches (a small disk put on top of the candlestick, with a hole bored through it to admit the candle) of colored glass, cut, gilt and enameled. Paper weights of hollow balls filled with water, containing a man with an umbrella. These balls also contain a white powder which, when the paper weight is turned upside down, falls in imitation of a snow storm. Vases covered over with a peculiar purple bronze-looking enamel, imitating the iridescent colors of glass. Silvered vases, glass balls, and candlesticks. Bunches of grapes, silvered or colored inside in blue, green, and ruby. Articles decorated in opaque colors in very high relief. This style of decoration looks well, as it relieves the monotony of a flat surface. Engraved and enameled articles.

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I am in hopes that some of our manufacturers will devote their attention not only to the printing process I mentioned before, but also to hand decoration with enamel colors. Many very handsome things may be made at a moderate cost. I especially recommend the introduction of this style of decoration on good clear white and bright-colored glass, for I cannot see nor appreciate the beauty there is said to be existing in handsome decorations put upon smoke-colored, dirty green, or muddled glass, in imitation of antique glass ware. The French and Bohemians have shown us what can be done with good glass, and I much prefer the result when compared with the Italian reproductions of antique glass.

English manufacturers have waked up to the beauty of the enamel decorations, and are at work getting out patterns for them. This is one of the benefits of exhibitions, and intelligent nations are not slow to see and adopt improvements.

Glass signs.

Another use to which glass has been put with much advantage should be mentioned. I refer to ornamental glass letters, cut, gilt, painted, and decorated in handsome patterns. These letters are cemented upon plate-glass and are used for signs. They are made in plain white crystal and flashed-colored glass, cut in diamonds and other patterns, beveled on the edges. Pieces of glass are also cut in the shape of boots, gloves, shields, crosses, medallions — cut, engraved, silvered, and gilt. A line assortment of these letters was exhibited by Messrs. Petit, Hodin, and Dewez, all of Paris.

Decoration of window glass.

The decoration of window and plate glass with enamel colors is also extensively carried on in France, with very fine results. I have classed the exhibit of Messrs. Lémal-Raquet & Co., of Paris, under this chapter instead of window glass, as I think it more properly belongs here. This house is quite celebrated for the beauty and fine execution of its work. They are the inventors of the flattening oven I have described under the head of window glass.

They exhibit curved plates for circular street lanterns; dials of glass covered with opal enamel; pressed glass tiles; sheets of plated glass engraved and ruled in depolished lines by a machine invented by themselves; panes etched with acid and silvered; large panels of glass in ordinary

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gray enamel, colored, transparent, and opaque colors; a large variety of decorated muslin glass, made by mechanical processes of their own, which enable them to do the work at very low prices. While in Paris I visited a factory making similar enameled glass and saw the simplicity of this branch of industry. Yet, in this country, we are almost entirely dependent upon foreign manufacturers for the fine enameled sheet-glass in use in our houses and public buildings.

Enamel colors.

Among the manufacturers of enamel and transparent colors I may mention:

A. Lacroix, 184 and 186 Avenue Parmentier, Paris, already well known in this country by our amateur china decorators. M. Lacroix had the kindness to invite me to visit his works, and showed me through his whole establishment. The house was founded in 1855, and the owner has found such a demand for his goods that he has again been obliged to enlarge his works; some parts of the new building were not quite finished at the time of my visit. The works now give employment to 43 persons. Within the last three years the production of his works has been doubled, and in the year 1877 his exportation was also doubled. M. Lacroix manufactures all kinds of vitrifiable transparent colors and enamels, put up in dry powders or in tubes, already mixed, such as are used for china and glass decoration. He also sells little portable furnaces for baking china and glass, with which amateurs may do their own baking at home and thereby save the risk of breakage and cost of transportation. M. Lacroix has been connected with the manufacture of vitrifiable colors for a long while, and is particularly careful in his preparations. I had the pleasure of seeing the different processes through which the preparation of colors has to go: The melting furnaces in which the glass and enamels are first melted; the grinding mills through which these are reduced to powder or paste; the drying ovens; the putting up of powders; and the filling of tubes with wet colors. I was particularly pleased with the cleanliness and neatness of this establishment. I can scarcely add anything to the already well-known and deserved reputation of this house.

Appert Frères, of Paris, also manufacturers of colors and enamels, had a fine display of their productions, consisting of colored enamel disks (Venetian style); enamels for watch and clock dials, for gold and silver, for colored

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crystal, in tubes and sticks, for pearls and fancy glass ware; vitrifiable colors for painting on china, glass, and enamel; colored enamels for pipe clay; fluxes of all kinds, melted or precipitated. Quite a variety of goods was shown, being the application of their productions, such as:

  • Colored glass, coated on both sides, with another color in the middle; the two outside coats engraved, thereby showing three colors.
  • Panels of glass mosaic, as samples of their enamels.
  • Decorated Venetian glass ware.
  • Vases, painted, with the necks ornamented with colored beads.
  • Opal clock dial, with the hour-marks etched.
  • Imitations of various precious stones, cut in cameos and diamonds.
  • Colored beads, plain and depolished.
  • Sheets of plated colored glass, as well as cylinders in all colors.
  • A fan of spun glass in several colors.
  • Etruscan vase colored with chrome green.
  • Two large dishes decorated with their Chinese white.
  • Enamels on cast and wrought iron.
  • Chemical glass ware for laboratories.
  • White and colored chimneys for light-houses.
  • Rough-cast glass for deck-lights and lenticular apparatus.
  • Sheet-glass for spectacles and optical purposes, white, blue, neutral, or smoked, rose-colored, with gold-plated opal.

The colors of the glass and enamels exhibited by this house are all very pure and clear.

Guilbert-Martin, at St. Denis, has a manufactory of enamels and colored glass in sticks and tubes, which I had the pleasure of visiting, and saw the operation of drawing the colored tubes. The establishment does not differ from an ordinary glass-house, except in not using annealing furnaces, but simply a melting furnace. At the Exposition I saw samples of their manufactures, consisting of:

  • Plaques of enamels in all colors.
  • Sticks of colored glass, beads, and plaques of mottled marble glass.
  • Plated sheet-glass in two, three, and four layers of differently colored glass.
  • Imitation colored precious stones and a series of white strass in fine and brilliant imitation of the diamond; opal clock dials.
  • A collection of 2,000 tints of colored enamels for gold and silver.
  • Tubes for levels, water gages, barometers, thermometers, chemical glass ware, etc.

E. Paris, of Saint Joseph du Bourget, dépôt in Paris, one of the pioneers in the manufacture of enamels, had an exhibit of his wares in a special building, where specimens of his glass ware in plain, colored, and enamel could be seen. The reputation of this house is well established, especially as a maker of enamels for cast and wrought iron. A very fine large iron fountain, colored in blue enamel, was put up in the grounds of the Exposition, and attracted

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much attention. This work showed a remarkable uniformity in color and freedom from cracks. Many large iron flower tubs were also distributed through the grounds; these were enameled and decorated by the printing process, and were the production of this house.


France, owing to her wine production, is naturally a country where bottles are needed in large quantities. Several large glass-houses are especially devoted to the manufacture of bottles.

Société Anonyme des Verreries de Lourches (Nord), was founded in 1851, and is situated in the midst of coal mines. This society has established a special laboratory, where all the materials used are analyzed. They have a 12-horse steam-engine, 3 melting furnaces of 8 pots each, 2 furnaces constantly at work and the other under repair. The life of their furnaces is about 10 months. Annual production 3,000,000 bottles, of which one-third are exported. They manufacture wine and liquor bottles, demijohns, and casks, and employ 90 men, 24 women, and 30 children; together, 144 workmen. They maintain a savings association, and allow 5 per cent, interest upon the amount paid in by the workingmen. Their exhibition consisted of green and brown bottles and a variety of very large glass barrels. These are a speciality with this company.

Deviolaine & Co., glass works at Vauxrot (Aisne), founded in 1802 at Prémontré, then transferred to Yauxrot in 1828 by the grandfather of the present owners. Bottles are exclusively made, and principally for champagne wine, which can resist a pressure of 25 to 30 atmospheres. They also make bottles for beer, mineral waters, and general druggists’ ware. The works employ 300 workmen, 50 of which are from 12 to 16 years old; no women are employed. There are four melting furnaces run with coal, containing 28 pots. For a few years past they have been making experiments with a Ponsard furnace, run with gas and a regenerator. It is expected that, with the improvements that have been made lately, these furnaces will save a great deal of fuel. The annual production of this firm is from four to five millions of bottles. Experiments have been made with closed and rotary molds, but are pronounced to be a failure, especially for champagne bottles, in making which it is said that nothing can be substituted for the hand of the workmen. The bottles of this house are especially said to be renowned for their great strength and resistance.

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A. Chartier & Co., at Douai (Nord), make green, light and dark black and yellow wine bottles. They had a series of bottles from a very light yellow to a very deep shade, all of excellent color. Fruit jars, demijohns, carboys, etc., all of remarkably uniform color.

Verreries d’Épinac, at Épinac (Saône-et-Loire). Bottles of all kinds. Curiosities exhibited by this firm were a bottle blown in 1611, of brown glass, which had been discolored very much and looked like bronze metal, and another bottle of 1811 in a very good state of preservation.

J. Tumbeuf Neveu et Neveu, Vieille-Loye (Jura).   Bottles of different kinds.   These works were founded in 1506. It was at this place, in 1630, that the first gentlemen glass blowers (gentilhommes verriers) were made by a decree of the king.

Other exhibitors were J. Chagot & Co., at Montceau-les-Mines (Saône-et-Loire); A. de Granrut aîné, Loivre (Marne); E. de Granrut, Maison-Rouge (Ardennes); Société Anonyme des Verreries d’Hirson, Hirson (Aisne); Verreries de la Loire et du Rhône, Rive-de-Gier; Richarme Frerès. Rive-de-Gier; P. Cretin & Co., Chagny (Saône-et-Loire); E. Collignon & Clavon, Trélon (Nord); S. Édouard-Roulet, Graville-Sainte-Honorine (Seine-Inférieure); Schneider & Co., Decize (Niévre), were also exhibitors of bottles of all kinds, green, brown, and black glass, for wines, champagnes, liquors, beer, etc.; glass bells used to protect early vegetables, demijohns, etc. One firm, Richarme Frères, exhibited demijohns of 460, 380, 343, and 158 liters.

Stained, engraved, and etched glass.

The art of staining and decorating window and plate glass is carried to a great state of perfection in France, and the artistic taste and skill developed in its execution is really wonderful. It is not my purpose to enter into an artistic discussion of this beautiful branch of the glass industry, but I simply wish to call attention briefly to what is done by French artists in the different styles of ornamentation.

P. Bitterlin, of Paris, had one of the finest displays. Large panels of plate-glass were hung in an outside gallery, where the light could readily shine through and show every detail of the designs. Several beautiful plates etched in clear and depolished by hydrofluoric acid in different tints of depolish, from dead white to a blue white; also specimens of engraved panels for the handsome building erected in the Exposition by the city of Paris. A peculiar style of etching was shown, said to be a “modification of

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silicious surfaces by a new combination of hydrofluoric acid,” a, new patent. This process produces a very rough surface, engraved clear. There is probably a combination of acid with a substance resisting its action, which is applied to the surface of the glass, to protect it in parts only and in irregular spots. The effect is not pretty. This house has combined engraving, etching, painting, staining, and plated or flashed-colored glass in the ornamentation of its panels with a very successful result. Some plates are engraved or etched and filled over with grisaille color; some are etched in depolish on one side and decorated in enamel and vitrified colors on the other. Stained-glass plates are leaded and others painted with lines in imitation of leads. Plates of flashed colored glass etched clear and in depolish. Fine landscapes painted in vitrifiable colors. Vitrified photographs on plain white and on opal grounds. In fact, many happy combinations of colors, engraving, etching, and colored glass are shown with great advantage and success by this house.

Reygeal Frères, Michon, &Veysset, Paris, exhibited plates with a clear glass ground, certain parts etched clear with acid, others in grisaille and dead etching; plates etched in relief and painted in colors; plates of glass of different colors; stained and enameled sheet glass; plated sheets engraved and etched.

J. Dopter, Paris. Glass plates in plated or flashed-colored glass, depolished ground, painted with enamel colors in relief and parts etched clear; some of the same style with faint colors painted between those in relief and the etched designs; sheets of glass with a combination of enamel colors and etching; photographs on glass, with handsome engraved and etched borders.

Charles Lévêque, Beauvais (Oise), had on exhibition three large leaded windows, representing the history of engraving, printing, and bookbinding, consisting of a series of panels illustrating the different processes of these arts. The colors and drawing were very good.

Stained-glass windows were also exhibited by:

G. Néret, Paris. M. P. Queynoux, Paris.
J. A. Ponsin,    “ C. J. Vantillard,    “
L. A. Ottin,    “ J. B. Anglade, Condom, (Gers.)
E. Hirsch,    “ Bazin & Co., Mesnil-Saint-Firmin, (Oise,)
H. Crapoix,    “
G. Bourgeois,    “ G. Champigneulle, Bar-le-Duc-Salvanges, (Meuse,)
H. Chabin,    “
J. G. Gsell-Laurent,    “ Höner Père et Fils, Nancy, (Meurthe-el-Moselle,)
L. Lefêvre,    “
P. Nicod,    “ N. Lorin, Chartres, (Eure-et-Loir,)
Glass: Commissioner Blake. 273

These represented groups, landscapes, portraits, and other subjects, intended for church windows, and were all done in very fine style. But I noticed in several instances that several of the glass pieces were very much deformed by heat in baking the colors.

A. F. Didot & Balencie, Paris, exhibited vitrified and enameled photographs in black and brown, very finely done.

J. M. H. Rémon, Paris. A series of panels without leads, showing quite a number of subjects, said to be made by a new process, in imitation of stained glass. I do not consider this a very successful style, for the colors looked blurred and the grounds irregular in color. It looked as though it was a painting or printing on thin canvases stuck together by means of a varnish.

Durand, Paris, had on exhibition a panel of plate-glass which appeared to have been engraved and painted over in transparent colors, representing Etruscan patterns. The transparence of the colors over the engraving produces a very pretty effect.

Casset-Delas, Paris, displayed etched plate-glass which he calls “plastic etching.” This etching show’s different degrees of depth in the designs, the ground being clear. It is an imitation of intaglio engraving, but the result is not satisfactory, as the acid in eating away the parts does not work regularly, and the etching appears quite rough and of uneven surface.

A. G. Reyen, Paris. Window panes engraved by the wheel on blue and ruby flashed glass, representing portraits and other subjects. The work was very superior and the shadows managed with wonderful ability, the tones in clear and half clear of beautiful execution. This evidently was the work of a very superior artist.

L. Kessler, Paris, said to be the inventor of etching in depolish with hydrofluoric acid and the printing process, had a very large glass vase, the bowl of which was very intricately and handsomely etched, showing great perfection. He is also said to be the inventor of an ink he had on exhibition, which can be used to etch glass with an ordinary pen. This ink is said to attack glass only, and does not destroy pens; quite a convenient article for labeling glass vessels. On a trial of this ink I found, however, that it is very difficult to make fine lines, as it is very thick.