Glass and Glass Ware, Paris 1878 - 05




{ Notes 2008:

The original report contained margin notes as an aide to locating information, these are not reproduced as search ability eliminates their value. Where a margin note does include additional data it will be included bracketted in-line using a different colour. }
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But few of the Austrian manufacturers exhibited. There was, however, a sufficient display to form an idea of the skill, beauty, elegance, and perfection of the Austrian glass ware. When such houses as J. & L. Lobmeyr, of Vienna, exhibit their wares, we may well form an opinion of the state of perfection to which glass making has attained in Austria. The Austrian section, one of the most attractive in the Exhibition, contained a very fine display of the well-known Bohemian glass ware. This glass, the so-called “crystal,” contains no lead or but little, and is a silicate of potash. It cannot compete with the English and French flint in brilliancy, owing to the absence or the very small proportion of lead it contains; but in purity, whiteness, and homogeneity of metal it is the best white glass made in Europe.

J. & L. Lobmeyr, Vienna,

One-half of the Austrian department was occupied by Lobmeyr, where all the beauty and the wonders of the Bohemian art glass were concentrated. I scarcely knew which to admire the most, the finely cut and engraved crystal objects, or the great variety and diversity of beautifully engraved and decorated articles.

Among the thousands of attractive objects exhibited by this house I particularly noticed:

A magnificently engraved bowl, 13 inches in diameter, mounted in ormolu, costing $4,000, given by this house to the Vienna Museum.

A great variety of plates engraved in the most perfect manner, such as the Bohemians particularly excel in.

A large variety of small bouquet-holders, some of them having a foot made of three or more solid balls.

A number of small fancy articles having spirals made of tubes inclosed between two layers of glass. The air inclosed in the tubes resembles silvered threads imbedded in the metal.

Large cut candelabras mounted in ormolu.

Upon a beautiful table of dark blue glass, 3 by 3 feet, about 5/8 inch thick, was mounted a tankard of crystal glass cut in bamboos, diamonds, and bamboos intermixed with clear and polished engraving. Alongside of this tankard was placed a goblet engraved in polished engraving, with the double-headed eagle of Austria. Both of these objects were mounted in very tasteful frames of ormolu, studded with clusters of pearls and corals; the metallic handle of this tankard represented a dragon; in the cover were inserted clusters of pearls, coral, and precious stones. The waiter upon which these two pieces were placed was composed of 18 panels, beautifully engraved; the frame and handles of ormolu, the handles representing two beautiful statues. This set, remarkable for its masterly execution, was intended for the city hall of

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Vienna. I cannot say, however, that I particularly admired the design, as to me it seemed heavy and awkward.

Several services of crystal cut glass, painted in black colors of different patterns, were also exhibited. The contrast of a brilliant surface with black decorations I consider a bad effect, not pleasant to the eye. Other services cut and painted in light pink looked very handsome.

Articles of white glass engraved, and covered over the engraving with a dead gilding, looked very pretty.

Sets of bluish opal glass painted with white enamel and gold.

Sets of white and yellow glass, in which flakes of white mica have been distributed irregularly.

Sets in turquoise-blue, gilt, and mounted in ormolu.

Fine large vases, subjects painted with gold and colored grounds.

Two very large vases in six pieces, measuring 51 inches, with pedestals; the body of the vase handsomely engraved, and the remainder cut; valued at $3,200 the pair. The different pieces were adjusted one upon the other with such nicety that it was with difficulty one could see the separation. Two handsome glass handles were attached at the sides, and were very regularly put on.

Two heavily cut oval bowls, 10 by 15œ inches, cut in diamonds, worth $100 each.

The Austrian cutting is principally flutes and diamonds; sometimes large panels are cut, and upon these heavy sharp diamonds are distributed.

The thin blown glass ware of this house is very well done.

Quite a variety of goods exhibited by this house consist of articles with cutting, painting, and decorations upon the same article. This would indicate that Bohemian glass is hard enough to retain the sharpness of the cutting, even when it is placed in a muffle to bake on the enamels, the gilding, and other decorations.

In colored glass I found a large variety of very superior colored, painted, gilded, enameled, and otherwise decorated articles, all executed in very fine taste, and the colors of the glass excellent.

Two fine vases with ormolu handles, 24 inches high by 11 inches diameter.

An opal set of enameled glass painted over in several colors, making a fine contrast.

A very handsome vase, 4 feet high, of iridescent amber glass, gilded and enameled in white, was sold to the Dublin Museum for $140. Another one of the same style was sold to the South Kensington Museum, of London.

Iridescent glass.

This house is especially celebrated for its iridescent glass, being the pioneer in that line. About twenty years ago it so happened that by using fire works in a furnace where some glass-ware had been placed the metallic vapors of these fire works produced a peculiar iridescent color upon

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the glass. It is only three years ago since these gentlemen revived this process, improved it, and put it into general use, with such good results. Other Austrian manufacturers have taken up this process; the English also have obtained good results with it. These beautiful colors of the rainbow were applied principally to crystal glass, but also to several kinds of slightly colored glass, such a slight amber, etc. The Austrian wares in that line cannot be surpassed.


The glass chandeliers exhibited by Lobmeyr were very handsome, light in structure, pretty in design, and skillfully made; they were in striking contrast to the jumble of colors and great number of pieces found in the Italian chandeliers. Some were mounted in gilt bronze, others entirely of crystal glass, plain white or iridescent; some mounted with large and beautiful cut drops of all sizes and shapes; some with cut bowls and branches, others with engraved bowls and plain branches.

I should not forget to call attention to several paper weights made of a solid piece of glass cut in the shape of a diamond and supported by four little negroes in bronze. The purity and brilliancy of the glass enables one to judge of the perfection of this Bohemian metal, which was almost entirely free from defects.

The fancy articles were in such an endless variety that it is impossible to describe them. I must pay a tribute to the elegance of design, the regularity, and perfection of the articles exhibited by the Messrs. Lobmeyr.

I have to state, however, that, no matter how skillful and beautiful the engraving and decorating of this house may be, the cutting lacks in perfection, and I saw many articles beautifully decorated but very irregularly cut; nor is the cutting deep enough, nor does it present as sharp angles as I saw in the British section.

Enamel decorated ware.

The Messrs. Lobmeyr have also attempted the manufacture of enamel decorated ware in the Arabian style.

The accompanying illustration (Plate 17) represents a few of the styles exhibited. Although the workmanship is good and well executed as an imitation of original Arabic wares, yet the general effect produced by the combination of peculiarly colored glass and the profuse ornamentation is somewhat garish.

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Plate 17.

Enameled Decorated Ware
J. & L. Lobmeyr, Vienna.

{ note: All of the above are enlarged and detailed individually in the Glass Catalogue.}

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But, however pretty this style of glass may be thought to be by some, in my opinion it will never have a wide circulation. There is oddity about the style, but nothing pretty, and it is only in the hands of such an artist as Brocard or Gallé, of France, that these wares can be made somewhat attractive. Although I have praised the general excellence of the wares of this house, and the fine taste displayed in their designs, from this general approval I must except the uncouth and heavy shapeless articles made in imitation of the old German tankards, mugs, etc. There are no beauty of contour, prettiness of form, or harmonious and pleasant lines; they are, in my estimation, simply the result of the first effort of a nation which has never been singled out for taste, and Bohemian art glass does not receive any additional credit for the production of such wares. The glass decorated by the Messrs. Lobmeyr is manufactured by M. Lobmeyr’s nephew, at Adolf, in Bohemia.

Bohemian glass ware, such as is sent to this country, is often far from being anything above ordinary common wares, but we should not form an opinion of Bohemian glass manufacture until we see such a display as was made by these gentlemen.

The Austrians, in matters of taste, are the French of Germany.

G. Ullrich, Wilhelmsthal

A very fine assortment of decorated, painted, and gilt glass.

A very liandsome set of crystal glass vases, goblets, bowls, etc., heavily cut, gilt, and with heavy panels left in relief, painted and enameled.

Several large vases in very heavy diamond cutting.

Several articles of iridescent glass, and a few with mica flakes, called “metallized glass.” Some of the iridescent glass is decorated and enameled in white.

A very large white glass bowl mounted in gilt bronze.

Articles in crystal glass, cut, covered over with ruby in certain parts, and engraved.

Articles of black iridescent glass, enameled over in white enamel. A very pretty contrast.

Thin muslin glass, blown very regularly, engraved, and painted with light stars and strawberry designs.

Thin articles decorated with light and tasteful designs.

Large vases decorated handsomely with raised enameled borders on light-brown ground. A very handsome effect.

Thin articles of white iridescent glass, with decorations made to imitate crackled glass; these are supposed to have been, painted with a medium upon which powdered glass had been sprinkled, then baked in the muffle.

An assortment of handsome chandeliers.

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Julius Mühlhaus & Co., Haida, Bohemia.

A large, fine étagère with two bowls, handsomely cut and scalloped, the outside of the bowls cut into very sharp angles, which are themselves cut into profiles, in the same style as the small thermometers, representing columns, etc., so that from the inside different cut designs could be seen as if in relief; a very difficult and pretty piece of work; the foot is cut in heavy panels. A handsome piece of cut glass, worth $85.

An assortment of the usual iridescent decorated glass.

Two very large and handsome vases, decorated in white enamel, of beautiful design. A handsome and remarkable piece of work worth $1,150.

J. J. Gürtler & Sons, Meistersdorf, Bohemia.

A very handsome goblet, upon which was deeply engraved a representation of the Lord’s Supper, in old Bohemian style.

Black vases with white mica distributed in the mass and painted over.

Black vases with golden metallic flakes. These pieces are made by first blowing an object in the desired colored glass; the metallic flakes are then rolled on, and a new layer or envelope is put over this; these flakes are therefore inclosed between the two layers of glass.

Clemens Rasch, Ulrichsthal and Meistersdorf.

A variety of colored decorated glass.

A very pretty pale amber service, engraved; also one in light pink; both of very pure colors.

The usual variety of decorated vases.

A new style of frosted pink vases on an opal inner coat, ground in parts to show the opal coating, and engraved upon the pink outer coat. This style is said to have been recently patented.

Black vases decorated in white enamel, and a variety of iridescent glass.

Ludwig Moser, Carlsbad.

This house has introduced the Japanese decorations upon a light gold ground, which brings out the patterns very prettily.

Several vases decorated in relief in imitation of cloisonné. The designs upon these vases are very complicated, and are in imitation of Arabian work. Ihe enamels put on are very thick and stand quite in relief. These goods met with a very large sale during the Exposition.

The colored glass of this house was not up to the usual standard.

Joseph Inwald, Palma.

Two very handsome crystal candelabra, hung with drops, heavily cut in prisms and flutes, and interspersed with handsomely engraved medallions. The metal was of excellent quality, clear and brilliant.

Two large crystal decanters, heavily cut, having large knobs cut out of the metal and engraved upon; these, as well as the candelabra, were fine specimens of the glass-cutter’s art.

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Joseph Ahne, Steinschönau.

A variety of colored glass, ornamented; black glass with white enamel, opal decorated in gold, etc.

Jos. Ed. Schmid, Annathal.

The usual variety of colored glass fancy articles. This house also exhibited a style of crystal heavily cut hanging baskets, with handsome cut drops, which were in very good taste and beautiful. Many small bouquet-holders in iridescent glass, blown very thin, had heavy solid feet; the display of the iridescent colors gave these goods quite a pleasing appearance.

Franz Wagner, Meistersdorf.

Very handsome square jewelry caskets in black glass, mounted in silvered and gilt frames, decorated in pretty patterns, with white enamels.

A large-size casket was valued at $40. This house seemed to have exhausted ingenuity in making these toilet boxes, as they could be found in all colors and styles of decoration.

A variety of square toilet boxes, having glass drawers fitted in gilt frames, the glass cut, engraved, and decorated in enamel.

A variety of bird cages made of sticks of opal and other colored glasses, the bottoms lined with looking glasses and decorated in enamel. These cages have a remarkably fine appearance.

Rud. Grohmann & Co., Haida.

Among the number of handsome wares of this firm could be seen several very large oil lamps in different colored glasses. Some of the prettiest were of a pale-gray glass, decorated in white enamel in relief; also in black glass, with the same enamels, crowned with very beautifully engraved globes. Fine opal vases decorated in relief gold. A very pretty vase with a dark ruby ground, painted with white raised enamel. A pair of light cream-colored vases, decorated in brown relief enamel.

Schindler & Veit, Gablonz.

A very fine assortment of imitation precious stones, in all colors; cut beads; paperweights in acid-depolished glass representing cat heads, with mouth and eyes painted in enamel; paper weights with pictures covered over with a varnish.

C. Dressler, Gablonz.

Very fine toilet chest of plate-glass, mounted in gold, lined inside with different colored silks. Paper weights of depolished statues, mounted upon bases of colored glass. Also a large variety of imitation stones for jewelry, in very fine colors.

Other exhibits showed artificial flowers made of glass, with a very successful result. These flowers naturally retain their freshness for ever. The china manufacturers, however, are also making these flowers, which look very pretty, and it seems to us that the materials they use are of much easier treatment than glass.

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In the Austrian section was one of the attractions of the day, viz, the manufacture of toilet articles and stuffs for ladies’ wear, made out of spun glass, by Madame Jules de Brunfaut, Vienna. The glass, shown on the counters in large bundles, to all appearances looks like cotton, and is of a remarkable fineness. This glass is spun into threads like ordinary cotton, and is woven into different colored fabrics, sometimes entirely of glass and sometimes with a chain of silk or cotton.

The novelty of seeing fancy articles made of spun glass attracted the eye of the visitor. Ladies were particularly astonished at seeing collars, neckties, cords and tassels, fringes, pin cushions, little caskets, curled feathers, belts, etc., made of glass. A very handsome ladies’ buff-colored bonnet, made of spun glass, with the orthodox feather and ribbons, lined with silk, was the center of attraction. A bonnet of this kind can run the risk of a shower without being spoiled; glass will only look brighter for being washed.

The exhibit included a very handsome cloak, made of knitted wool and lined with glass cloth, the threads being woven a certain distance apart and laid at right angles. This made a very pretty and bright lining, offering a pleasant contrast with the colored knitted wool. The different articles exhibited were made in various-colored glasses. There was quite a variety of colored and white laces; cloths embroidered with glass; very thin woven glass cloth, in which now and then a fine thread of gold-colored glass appeared, making a very handsome fabric. These goods are easily washed by simply dipping in a bath of water and soda, and brushed with an ordinary soft brush.

The Hungarian section had nothing worthy of notice. The glass was of a very poor color, quite yellowish, and the execution of the work quite inferior. Among other things could be seen a very large and heavy vase of crystal, said to have been made 40 years ago, cut poorly, the glass of bad color, and the style very homely.

In conclusion, it may be said that very beautiful glass ware was shown in the Austrian section, and the praise bestowed upon it is well deserved. In this branch of industry, for which Bohemia has been celebrated for many years, are seen the benefits of a continuous manufacturing for a long period of time. Glass making to a Bohemian is as natural as inventing is to a Yankee. Every one is familiar with the art, and, as in other nations, the multiplicity of talent has made

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this country particularly celebrated all over the world for its famous productions.

L. Lobmeyr, to whom I am indebted for much valuable information on the subject of glass, and who lately published an interesting work entitled, “Die Glasindustrie: ihre Geschichte, gegenwärtige, Entwickelung, und Statistics,” writes to me that a great part of the good name of the Bohemian glass is due to the fact that the best artists in Vienna are selected for designing the models in the styles in which they are particularly known to excel. It would be impossible for a single artist to create designs suitable for such a variety of shapes and purposes. The government, knowing the importance of its Bohemian industry, has also fostered its development by lending to it the benevolent influence of the Vienna Museum, an institution said to be admirably managed. It is to be hoped that our government may follow in the footsteps of the Austrian, and encourage in our proposed National Museum the dissemination of art, by acquiring specimens of the best-known art glasses and put them on exhibition.

One point not to be overlooked in Bohemian glass ware is the cheapness of all their productions. In this they can compete quite successfully with almost any other nation. Austria did not exhibit any window or plate glass, nor were the manufactures of bottles and ordinary green glass represented.

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Société Anonyme des Verrieries Réunies, Boussu-les-Mons.

The table ware exhibited by this house was of a very ordinary quality, the glass variable in color, and generally of a darkish cast, wanting in brilliancy. The colored glass is also of ordinary quality. The cut glass is irregular in workmanship and polish. A few large pieces were to be seen in crackled ware. The pressed glass, of which there seemed to be a larger quantity exhibited than in the other sections, was of inferior quality in color of metal, and in pressing showing very bad mold-marks and a cloudy surface. A few decorated opal globes were to be seen, but nothing else of interest.

The Compagnie Anonyme des Cristalleries et Verreries Namuroises, Namur.

This manufactory of table ware, gas globes, etc., had a variety of goods on exhibition, but nothing of especial interest could be seen. The irregularity of color in the metal, as well as the want of brilliancy, was also noticeable in their white glass. A few articles of colored glass exhibited were fair, but nothing remarkable. The cut and engraved articles were plain and ordinary. The muslin thin glass was blown with a little more regularity than the other wares. A few opal globes of fair quality. No acid etching was to be seen in the exhibit of the two above-named houses.


But few tools for glass-making were exhibited in the Belgian section. The only house, Messrs. Frankinet & Co., of Marchienne-au-Pont, had on exhibition a patented spring press. The springs can be regulated by a screw. The press is so combined that the ring is first brought down upon the mold; then the plunger; and when the latter has reached the bottom the pressure is continued by means of a spring cylinder, which increases the pressure without any shock. In unmolding the operation is reversed, in the order mentioned. The mold slides upon V-ways, and is adjusted in its proper place by means of set screws. Price $150. This press seems to be well combined for giving a gradually increasing pressure without any abrupt movement. The workmanship is good, and is superior to anything seen in the French section. This press much resembles our American presses. The same firm also exhibited a glass-cutter’s frame made entirely of iron, and permitting to adjust the wheel by means of screws, an improvement over the old wooden frame.

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Several other manufacturers of hollow ware did not think proper to exhibit. Among others, I regretted not to see the Val St. Lambert factories, so celebrated in Belgium and elsewhere for the excellence of their goods. These works are the largest in Belgium, and are to that country what the celebrated Baccarat works are to France. On a former trip to Belgium I saw the glass of this firm in their depot in Brussels, and was much pleased with the fine specimens shown. Their style of manufacture approaches that of the English and French, and in some instances is quite equal to some of the best work of these two countries. The St. Lambert works employ about 1,600 workmen, and the annual production is about $600,000. I have had occasion to see M. Jules Deprez, the manager of these works, and in the course of conversation have found him quite disposed to enter into the current improvements daily developed. He stated, among other things, that his works were introducing the Tilghman’s sand-blast engraving process This gentleman also freely acknowledges the superiority of American pressed glass.

If Belgian goods in general do not come up to the standard of excellency of some other nations, their remarkably low prices are quite an inducement to the purchaser, and statistics show that two-thirds of her productions are exported. The facilities for glass-making in Belgium are many.


Three only of the plate-glass factories exhibited.

The Manufacture de Glaces de Sainte Marie d’Oignies is the pioneer works of Belgium. They employ 700 to 800 hands and 600 horses steam-power. Gas furnaces are exclusively used.

The plates sent to Paris were a plain plate, 17.54 feet x 11.25 feet = 197.33 superficies, weighing 990 pounds; a silvered plate, 16.47 x 10.56 feet = 173.92 superficies, weighing 770 pounds. These were the largest in the Belgian section; very clear and free from defects, well polished, and apparently of a very even surface.

The Société Anonyme des Glaces et Verreries, du Hainaut, at Roux, a new factory, exhibited a plain, a silvered, and a beveled silvered oval plate. The plain plate measured 16.56 x 10.10 feet = 167.25 superficy, weighing 660 pounds; the silvered plate 13.71 x 11.12 feet = 152.45,

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weighing 616 pounds. Unfortunately the two large plates were broken when the workmen put them up. This house showed the different stages of the manufacture of plate-glass by plates in the rough state, ground, smoothed, and polished. The beveled mirror, although very finely silvered and mounted, had two defects on the edges, showing broken lines on the oval of the bevel. This factory, founded in 1868, is now manufacturing plates of equal quality to any of the older Belgian works. They use a 600 horse-power steam-engine and are provided with the best improved mechanical means of manufacturing. They have two Siemens furnaces, of 12 pots each. The annual production is put down at about 230,000 square feet.

The Société Anonyme de Courcelles exhibited silvered plates of 36.34 inches superficies, weighing 484 pounds, and a plain plate measuring 11.81 x 9.34 feet = 110.31 superficies, weighing 550 pounds. The quality of the glass and the finish are not up to the standard. They also exhibited several samples of rough plate-glass.

This factory was established in 1870; there are now at work 2 Siemens furnaces, with 12 pots each. The annual production is about the same as the Roux factory.

Other factories in Belgium did not take part in the Exposition — those of Floreffe and Aurelais.

The Floreffe factory has been in operation since 1853. The furnaces used are of the Siemens patent. The annual production is put down at 240,000 superficial meters.

The Aurelais factory is of such recent date that little can be said about it. Its annual production may be estimated at about 90,000 square meters.

The manufacture of plate-glass is extending every year in Belgium. A monopoly, such as is existing in France, is not possible there any longer, as I find several new works have been erected lately.

Our manufacturers of plate glass, who, for the want of skilled men, have not met with success in their undertaking, should turn their eyes towards Belgium to secure the talent we do not possess as yet. It will also be noticed that the Belgians invariably use gas furnaces in their manufacture. These are undoubtedly the best for such work, and our present and future plate works should adopt them without hesitation.

The best improved machinery for grinding and finishing plates should also be procured, as much of the success of plate works is due to the proper kind of machinery used.

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Window glass.

In the manufacture of window glass Belgium is especially far famed, and, though other countries are also making window glass, she is pre-eminently the window-glass manufacturer of Europe. In quality and price she holds a position in the first rank, and although France and Germany are close to her in the race she nevertheless holds her own well.

The Belgian manufacturers made a collective exhibit of their productions. These were shown in a queerly shaped iron structure, which was intended, doubtless, to show the glass at a good advantage, but it was a signal failure. The structure was built very high, with a spiral stairway in the center to ascend to the upper part, where different colored and etched glasses were mounted. But since the stairway was permanently closed, to see and appreciate the quality of the glass exhibited one ran the risk of dislocating his neck in looking up.

The Belgian window glass in general is of a very good quality, free from air bubbles or impurities, of good color, and the surface very even. The colored glass was of superior quality and of very clear colors; the doubled, trebled, and quadrupled or flashed colored glass was very fine, uniform in the thickness of the coatings, and when etched or engraved presented very fine specimens of workmanship. We regret that some manufacturers had the unfortunate idea of pasting pieces of gold paper on the edge of their glass. Whether this was from intent or carelessness, it is certainly to be discountenanced, as with this paper obstruction the color of the glass in the mass cannot be ascertained.

Among the manufacturers exhibiting were:

F. Deulin Père, at Jumet, who runs 3 furnaces; 2 with coal, one of a new system with gas, and 3 flattening ovens heated with coal. He employs 160 workmen; the daily production is about 3,000 feet. This house makes it a specialty to manufacture colored glass, but also had white and stained glass on exhibition.

H. J. Bivort, Jumet, exhibited very large cylinders 129 x 42 inches, panes 81 x 53 inches, 146 x 36œ inches, all made in a very perfect manner; colored, doubled, or flashed glass in very good colors, and engraved in very pretty patterns. M. Bivort was the pioneer in introducing the Siemens furnaces in Belgium for window-glass making.

A. Fourcault-Frison & Co., of Dampremy, exhibited cylinders of 5.08 feet x 3.110 feet, weighing 56 pounds; another 9.12 x 4.37 feet; a sheet 9.57 x 2.88 feet.

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Leon Mondron, of Lodelinsart, also had sheet-glass of large size, one 98 x 32 inches, and another 102 x 39 inches; also a cylinder 115 x 11 inches.

C. Lambert & Sons, of Charleroi, had a variety of sheet-glass of good quality, among others one 68 x 38 inches, and a cylinder 7 feet x 9 inches.

Léon Baudoux & Co., Charleroi. A fine exhibit of colored, engraved, plain, enameled glass; also corrugated glass sheets. An attraction of this exhibit is two corrugated cylinders 7œ feet high, with very straight corrugations.

The Verreries de Mariemont exhibited depolished corrugated and bent sheets. These have been made with a Boëtius furnace, which they introduced in Belgium in 1869, and which by several improvements has been adapted to the making of window glass. The good quality of the glass shown is a proof of the superiority of this style of furnaces, and is also owing to the fact that this firm uses mechanical means for the crushing and mixing of their materials.

Société Anonyme des Verreries, Charleroi. Window glass in all thicknesses, made in a Siemens furnace. Also depolished glass by the Tilghman process, said to be able to depolish 1,600 square meters of glass in 10 hours.

E. Baudoux, of Lodelinsart, had a fine assortment on exhibition of colored and muslin glass, in opal and other very pure colors.

The Verreries Nationales, Jumet. Finely engraved sheet-glass, of all colors. The engraving of this house is also made by the Tilghman sand-blast, and is a good specimen of the beautiful work which can be made with this valuable process.

Schmidt, Devillet, & Co., of Dampremy, exhibited sheets 7.24 x 3.28 feet; and MM. L. Lambert & Co., of Jumet, cylinders of 11.41 x 3.25 feet, and sheets 8.26 x 3.34. feet.

Monnoyer Frères & Co., L. de Dorlodot & Co., of Lodelinsart; the Société Anonyme de Jemmapes, V. Brasseur & Co., of Charleroi; Schmidt, of Lodelinsart; the Société Anonyme des Verreries de Marchienne-au-Pont; Alphonse Morel, Lodelinsart, also had a fine assortment of window glass.

Before closing this summary description, I must mention the handsomely decorated glass panels and looking-glasses of MM. Aug. Nyssens & Co. and Reverdy & Co., both of Brussels, the former having silvered mirrors etched in clear and dead surface, the edge beveled, cut, and etched,

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all in very good taste. Messrs. Reverdy’s handsomely painted plate-glass panels, with frames of colored glass; two blue glass panels, engraved, representing handsome landscapes, and other panels with beautifully tinted ground; handsome looking-glasses, engraved, transparent, and silvered; also a panel mirror in enamel, engraved and silvered, all done in a very artistic manner.

J. B. Capronnier, Schaerbeek, near Brussels. A finely painted subject, representing Saint Roch, presented to the Pope for a church in Antwerp. This gentleman has furnished several churches in Belgium, Italy, England, Germany, France, and the United States. He claims that his colors are perfectly unalterable, and prepares his own enamels.

Belgium, in the glass business, as in many other branches of industry, holds one of the foremost posts, especially in the manufacture of objects of utility. By her resources and her frugal population she will continue to remain one of the leading glass manufacturing nations. But her exportations to this country are gradually lessening, and our own manufacturers now supply nearly all the home demand for ordinary goods.